Monday, August 24, 2020

Cellular Manufacturing System Free Essays

What is Lean? Running an activity lean methods: Removal of misuse of various types (e. g. time, movement, stock, poor expense of value, and so on. We will compose a custom article test on Cell Manufacturing System or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now ) An association that animates profitability and quality An association utilizing esteem included procedures Low Quality = High Waste High Quality = Low Waste and Higher Value There are a few different ways to be Lean†TQM Six Sigma SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die) PM/TPM (Preventive Maintenance/Total Preventive Maintenance) JIT (Just In Time) Continuous Improvement/Kaizen And Many More†¦ Cell MANUFACTURING: MANUFACTURING A Lean Manufacturing Concept Cellular Manufacturing One of these lean practices, cell fabricating, depends on a gathering of various procedures situated in closeness to make a gathering of comparative items. The main role of cell producing is to lessen process duration and inventories to meet market reaction times. A portion of different advantages include: Space Reduction Quality Improvement Labor Cost Reduction Improved Machine Utilization Where might you start? In the first place, you would characterize the cell you intend to make. Standards required for characterizing the cell would be founded on: Processes Required Part Numbers Attributes (size, shape, crude materials required) Market sections/clients Degree of Automation By Jay P. Patel, Principle Consultant, Quality Productivity Solutions, Inc. Copyrightâ ©2000 by Jay Patel Cellular assembling is a use of the gathering innovation ideas for manufacturing plant reconfiguration and shop floor format structure. A section family can be parts comparable in size or parts made utilizing comparable assembling steps. Normally, a cell is committed to a solitary part family. Cell fabricating has some significant human asset issues to consider: Operators must be prepared appropriately to perform errands including review and straightforward upkeep Cross useful preparing is basic since administrators play out an assortment of assignments and move among workstations and cells as the need emerges Operators ought to be prepared on Team Building Supervisors become Coaches. Cell groups require just direction. Chiefs encourage, help nd control the general exertion. Pay issues: Cell workers for the most part get the more significant salary since they are better able to carry out numerous responsibilities. We suggest usage of a motivation program that gives impetuses based on results and steady enhancements. The executives might be worried that there will be obstruction from workers when the outcome is in reality inverse. Normally, any underlying obstruction vanishes once representatives comprehend the succes s win circumstance within reach. Cells need support from a few capacities including item building, material administration, fabricating designing, QC/QA, upkeep and the board. It is fundamental to usage achievement that this help is submitted, obvious and predictable. Group Selection Most critical to the execution of cell fabricating is group determination. To help figure out who is ideal to remember for your group, distinguish the abilities required for each progression by making a Process Map. Explain the jobs and duties of the jobs you need filled. When the aptitudes are distinguished, decide the potential colleagues. Disclose to potential individuals what the idea of the assignment is and figure out their advantage. What will you search for in your colleagues? Understanding the significance of choosing the correct group can't be overemphasized. Both goal and specialized models ought to be built up, remembering aptitudes for: cooperation relational abilities administration aptitudes change adjustment positive reasoning Develop an agenda for choosing these individuals dependent on the requirements of the phone. This can likewise be utilized in defining objectives for the individuals who wish to develop in their own ranges of abilities. 2 From here you should do some arranging. You should meet with influenced Supervisors to examine: Overall need Current structure and plans Current specialists and relative intensity of group pioneers Potential colleagues and the help they will require Negotiate to procure individuals most appropriate for the group. Renegotiate as important with the assistance of the executives and a definite usage plan. Ability Matrices Match aptitudes to undertakings. Make a network to characterize who is best able to perform explicit assignments. This will be the archive utilized for getting your group to the task: supporting in acquiring duty just as imparting duties and desires. Figure out what preparing is required and actualize a preparation plan. Ensure correspondence lines are set up, open and all around utilized. The accomplishment of the program is dependent upon the group dynamic and the objectives set. Correspondence is keyâ€learn to tune in and help other people to do likewise. What are the correspondence channels and connections? Who gives and who anticipates what? Could the colleagues achieve the undertakings allocated? Group Management Develop trust and give the group motivation to be persuaded. Figure out how to oversee camaraderie and make a framework to support cooperation. Make your group a case of how effective groups cause incredible things to occur. Start with a pilot cellâ€be sure the item family picked has the most potential for progress. Reserve if conceivable to give a substitute source during usage. At the point when changes are essential, convey the purpose behind these adjustments so as to pick up acknowledgment and comprehension from your group. Be certain about execution. Planning the Cell configuration ought to be founded on your undertaking needs. Remember the accompanying when planning the cell: item life cycle consistent, streaming work through the cell legitimate allotment of assets for measuring and tooling forceful update of hardware and procedures cell advancement is transformative and consistently in a condition of motion difficulties in office changes because of structure and age Involve your group and their insight in the development of the phone. Understanding throughput is fundamental to cell developmentâ€do not think little of the commitment and acknowledgment of the group once the idea is comprehended. At last, the coordinations and cell development is just a little piece of the fight. Making a culture where a group can thrive is the crucial step. This errand requires a genuine pioneer. Would you be able to address the difficulty? - JPP 3 Instructions to refer to Cellular Manufacturing System, Essay models

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Analyse the dramatic effectiveness in Act 3, Scene 5 Essay Example for Free (#3)

Investigate the sensational adequacy in Act 3, Scene 5 Essay Show (623) , Romeo and Juliet (446) , Capulet (321) , Lady Capulet (110) , County Paris (19) , Juliet (12) organization About StudyMoose Contact Professions Help Center Give a Paper Legitimate Terms and Conditions Security Policy Objections Taking a gander at the characters and language in Romeo and Juliet, break down the sensational adequacy in Act 3, Scene 5 William Shakespeare composed â€Å"Romeo and Juliet† in 1954, in spite of the fact that the fundamental plot can be followed back as ahead of schedule as the third century. In the play, Shakespeare depends intensely on the sonnet â€Å"The Tragicall History of Romeus and Juliet† by Arthur Brooke. The greater part of the individuals in the Elizabethan time were sufficiently discerning to focus on how the play was being performed and drawn in themselves in the language the characters were utilizing. Shakespeare’s crowds had various desires towards his play, the same number of them perceived the story as of now, they were sufficiently settled to watch it giving the dramatist’s understanding end up being one of a kind and unique. I have been taking a gander at Act 3, Scene 5 where Romeo and Juliet have recently been furtively hitched. The scene opens with the two darlings separating rapidly after the Nurse educates Juliet her mom is quickly drawing nearer. Effectively an emotional air is made, the crowd is practically hanging tight for Romeo and Juliet to be gotten out, this they know can basically not occur. Juliet is justifiably sorrowful; Romeo is thoughtful towards her, indicating he truly thinks about her: â€Å"I will exclude no open door That will pass on my welcome, love, to thee† All this is in contrast with later scenes in the play demonstrating Juliet singular and unsupported. Between the two darlings, there is an extraordinary contrast, Romeo shows up more idealistic than Juliet who is loaded with dread, detecting hunches of her next observing Romeo dead in a burial place. Her feelings influence the crowd, making them uncertain and tense: â€Å"O God, I have an evil divining soul! Methinks I see thee, presently thou craftsmanship so low As one dead in the base of a burial place. † The crowd hears these cruel, serious words and are helped to remember Romeo’s before frightening feeling that he would bite the dust youthful: â€Å"†¦. My psyche misgives Some outcome not yet hanging in the stars†¦.. By come contemptible relinquish of less than ideal passing. † A chilling impact is made on those survey the play as they begin to acknowledge and comprehend the hugeness of the two hunches. By thinking over into prior scenes, sensational adequacy is made. Juliet utilizes language that shows how she is dreadful of how her existence with Romeo could undoubtedly be devastated. She addresses him unequivocally, demonstrating a solid complexity to her delicate words utilized already. The solid bond that has been made between the two darlings before the audience’s eyes is quickly going to be crushed; strain is made as a result of this inclination. This pressure continues and turns out to be colossally more prominent as the updates on County Paris’ proposition is first known about. The crowd watch, effectively mindful of the proposition, as the news is given to a very stunned Juliet. They stand by restlessly for Juliet’s purpose as she learns of it, thus a sensational viability is thrown over them. The scene is made successful by the utilization of incongruity from Lady Capulet. As Lady Capulet alludes to her â€Å"joyful tidings† and Juliet’s reaction is incidentally a satisfied one: â€Å"And happiness comes well in such a penniless time† But then the crowd sees the genuine explanation of Lady Capulet’s declaration and the faltering of the pivotal words ends up being exceptionally emotional, â€Å"Shall cheerfully make thee there a happy bride† Juliet’s serious indignation would make extraordinary dramatization in front of an audience, she shows her furious response well: â€Å"Now by Saint Peter’s church and Peter too He will not make me there a blissful lady! † Juliet’s reaction shows precisely how she is feeling about the issue; she doesn't keep down by any stretch of the imagination. The crowd knows the difficulty she is confronting, one of polygamy, they are profoundly included and demonstrate truly necessary compassion to Juliet. In the discussion that follows the cold and sharp language both Juliet and her mom utilized are extremely powerful. The two sides address each other officially, Juliet calling Lady Capulet, â€Å"My Lady†, â€Å"Mother† where Lady Capulet calls Juliet â€Å"girl† and â€Å"child†. This doesn’t appear to be the language one would anticipate from an affectionate and adoring family. This could prompt the end that Juliet’s relationship is a long way from the relationship she has with Romeo; an adoring and stable one. At the point when Lord Capulet goes into Juliet’s room, it ends up being an essentially sensational scene due to the viciousness and wrath depicted by Lord Capulet. He shows up in her room in a compromising way; his significant other shows dread admonition us to anticipate the most exceedingly awful, â€Å"Here comes your dad. Let him know so yourself And perceive how he will take it at your hands. † Lord Capulet doesn't expect Juliet to resist him, he would just anticipate appreciative thanks and compliance from his girl. He depicts himself as somebody who is accustomed to getting his own specific manner and the way that he sees himself as sovereignty stresses to his tremendous sense of self and raised formal language,†Have you conveyed to our declaration? † He shows extraordinary excitement as he goes into Juliet’s room, he appears to be pleased with his arrangement and salutes himself in front of an audience. Being the main man in front of an audience, he is demonstrating mastery and the crowd can see that he jumps at the chance to be in charge. He makes the ladies apprehensive; his inside job in front of an audience shows this. The language that he utilizes is undoubtedly extremely emotional and viable. He offers conversation starters to Juliet, being sharp and short when he does so indicating how confounded he is, and he vociferously assaults his little girl overpowering her with various with various inquiries which she doesn't have the opportunity to reply, â€Å"How? Will she none? Doth she not give us much obliged? † Capulet’s sentence development is shrewdly disconnected stressing enormously on his outrage that is developing quickly. He shows a greater amount of an enthusiasm for figuring out how to respond to Juliet’s questions and his anxiety is more about his astuteness than the misery of his solitary little girl. He utilizes forceful terms to Juliet, † you greensickness carrion†, † youthful baggage†, the two models are exceptionally forceful and devegiating. Dissect the sensational adequacy in Act 3, Scene 5. (2017, Aug 29). We have articles on the accompanying points that might hold any importance with you

Ethnography Proposal Essay

In my ethnography I’m going to consider a café chain, for example, Starbucks. I will be seeing just as associating in endeavor to look into different attributes one must need to look in working in such a domain. At Starbucks the Baristas must have an authentic peppy character to every client. I might want to examine a privately claimed café too to think about the various situations and how one may keep an independent company above water when we have such enormous chains. I will be watching the connections that the Barista have with every client and how he/she will deal with that client. I intend to visit at any rate two separate cafés that are generally near each other and will ask a few clients from each shop for what reason they picked every café. I will spend around a few hours at the two houses at around a similar time. I will be sitting with a scratch pad to take notes on what I’m watching. I may likewise incorporate a concise meeting with at any rate one barista, in which I intend to approach with a basic inquiry posing on the off chance that I could have a snapshot of their opportunity to address a couple of inquiries regarding their workplace. Questions won't be nosy in any I am searching for progressively conventional replies with regards to how they like functioning for chain/free cafés. The explanation I have decided to examine this gathering is on the grounds that I need to make sense of how a private company can contend with a huge chain, for example, Starbucks. Wherever I go I see a Starbucks and most schoolmates might want to meet at a Starbucks so I can watch the various events individuals come in other than getting some espresso. Likewise caffeine is the universes most famous invigorate and four out of each five Americans drink espresso at some random time. A few issues I will look in my exploration will time. When is the best opportunity to arrived in and watch? To what extent will I be there for? I will in general notification by experience that bistros hit off at specific times and are vacant at others. Where the café is found will be a factor too. A few inquiries I had about my examination is, I’m not certain who I should lean my investigation towards, would it be increasingly hard to take a gander at clients or at the bosses. Additionally would it be advisable for me to think about discrete cafés or simply adhering to one?

Friday, August 21, 2020

why i quit the comapny. relate this article why i quit the company to your life

why I quit the comapny. relate this article why I quit the organization to your life [Type text] [Type text] [Type text]Jordan JohnsonD13ENovember 3, 2014Work Controls my LifeWhen I was more youthful I was unable to hold up until I was finished with school and I found a genuine line of work. Be that as it may, when I found a new line of work I wished I didn't need to work any longer. Much the same as in the article Why I Quit the Company by Tomoyuki Iwashita, I also feel like my activity controls my life. Likewise the article Help! Work Is Taking Over My Life via Carimah Townes identifies with how I feel about working.In the article why I quit the organization Tomoyuki Iwashita discusses how he works for an esteemed organization and how whatever he does, doesn't speak to him it speaks to the organization. So on the off chance that he makes an awful showing or something he shouldn't do the organization looks terrible not Tomoyuki. So a few people would state that his activity is controlling him since it doesn't permit him to do certain things on the off chance that i t doesn't fit with the manner in which the organization is runs.I can identify with this since I work at an after school Program with kids from the ages of 5-14. So in the event that I get in a tough situation outside of work it will look awful on the organization that I work for on the grounds that they employed me and they advised the guardians I was able to work with Their youngsters. So on the off chance that I accomplish something incorrectly the organization may lose the trust of the guardians. Making them remove their children from the after school program. Additionally I live in the region where I work at so a ton of the individuals I work with and the children who go to the after school program. So in any event, when I am in my local I...

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Oh, sweet freedom

Oh, sweet freedom Oh, the joys of being in college. Finally, we’re independent! We can do whatever we want, even if that entails eating nothing but ramen noodles until we get scurvy and staying up until 4AM day after day. (Actually, I’d still get a full(ish) night of sleep every night even if I did stay up until 4, what with none of my classes this semester starting before 11AM. Go ahead. Start throwing things at me while I rub it in. I deserve it.) Of course, with independence comes responsibility. According to my parents, living on your own is the first step on the pathway to getting really old. Or they could have said becoming an adult â€" as a teenager, I unconsciously start tuning out the ends of all of their sentences. It’s an uncontrollable reflex, I swear! Anyway, this whole concept of responsibility apparently has to do with novel concepts like time management and being able to make food for myself. The latter is beyond terrifying, as I have the rare ability to set even water on fire. Thankfully, some of the people on my floor are much better cooks than I am, and every now and then they’re willing to share. Even the most independent of people sometimes need others to help them. Having to fend for myself for the last two months has had me missing the security of home a bit, though. (Let’s ignore the part where it’s currently 77 degrees in South Florida, while here it’s 48 degrees and I can’t feel my toes.) I’m not the only one â€" many of my fellow frosh were in the same “MIT IS TAKING OVER MY LIFE AND I WANT TO GO HOOOOOOOOOME” mentality. Every now and then you want someone else to take care of you a little, you know? So last week Thursday, when my mom flew in from home for MIT’s Family Weekend, I rushed into her arms and squealed. Don’t even say you wouldn’t have done the same, as I was witness to plenty of others having similar reunions. My mom tried to get a sense of what life at MIT was like, including sitting in on an 18.02 class, crossing Harvard Bridge to have dinner in Boston, and a trip to Star Market for groceries. It was here where we realized that parental instincts never die, as there were plenty of other students shopping with their parents. And by shopping, I mean arguing about which items are really and truly necessary â€" Do you need pasta? You have it? You need more. I’m sure you need more pasta. How about a tomato? (Hi, Mom.) Aside from that, we bought some paint. My room has been screaming Paint me! NOW! for the last month and a half, since painting is allowed in Senior House and Institute White is boring. Speaking of Senior House, our tire swing died a week ago. Well, not completely. During Orientation this year, a few of the other residents were worried about the swing’s future, as the branch it had happily hung from for the last thirty years was dying. Last week, an arborist told the House Manager that the branch needed to be cut down and the swing removed to ensure the safety of the students. This caused quite the kerfluffle here (yes, I said kerfluffle. Let it go.), as the swing is an essential part of the Haus. Three hours later, though, a few students and one of our GRTs had the swing up on a different branch of the tree. You can see what remains of the branch the swing used to hang happily from. And now, it’ll never be the same. As the condition of the entire tree has yet to be determined, the future of our tire swing is still in jeopardy. For now, though, we’ll take what we can. On a completely unrelated note, it looks like MIT’s Early Action applications are due in about a week. If anyone has any burning unresolved questions (or any not-so-burning yet unresolved questions), send them my way and I’ll answer them as best as I can. After all, I did apply to MIT once. Oh, wait. That was what, two seconds ago?

Saturday, June 27, 2020

Strombidae Protected Fisheries - Free Essay Example

Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Strombus gigas, A Threatened But Protected Species 65 species of Strombidae are still in existence and the majority of those are found in the Indo-Pacific Oceans (ConchNews). 6 species of Strombidae are found throughout the Caribbean and Florida oceans (McCarthy, 2007): S. alatus, S. costatus, S. gallus, S. gigas, S. pugilis, and S. raninus, one of which, Strombus gigas, known as the Queen Conch, has highest commercial fisheries value of the six species and is commercially threatened. In 1990 the parties to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention) included S. gigas in Annex II of its Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol) as a species that may be used on a rational and sustainable basis and that requires protective measures (NOAA). Consequently on 11th June 1992 the United States listed S. gigas under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Appendix II; classi fied as commercially threatened (Theile, 2005). S. gigas then became the first large-scale fisheries product regulated by CITES (NOAA). This requires countries to harvest at a sustainable rate before they can obtain a permit to export (Thiele, 2001). The SPAW Protocol and CITES treaties are generally a positive step for the species, assisting efforts to ensure use and trade of S. gigas, however this is largely a commercial move and should not be confused with meaning it is officially on the endangered/threatened species list. S. gigas is simply on a list of species, fauna and flora not yet threatened or endangered, but with legal commitment by the governments to prevent them becoming so by implementing plans for management by establishment of closed seasons and regulation of their harvest and trade (Thiele, 2005). The Caribbean Fishery Management Council supports a regional International Queen Conch initiative, to promote a common international management strategy for the sustainable use of S resources in the Caribbean region, by making recommendations to address specific issues. E.g. International Queen Conch Initiatives (FAO 2003). In January 1991, 12 of the 14 Governments of the Caribbean Community officially launched the CARI COM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Programme (CFRAMP) to promote sustainable use and conservation of the fisheries resources, setting up the 1994 Lobster and Conch Resource Assessment Unit to provide data on conch and lobster resources in the Caribbean (Haughton 2004). Fig 1.1 The wider Caribbean region showing hypothetical Exclusive Economic Zones of countries those of CARICOM countries are shaded grey (Haughton, 2004). 1.2 Commercial Importance History Of Queen Conch Fisheries S. gigas, have been harvested by Caribbean fishermen for centuries (Stoner 1997), in some regions old conch shell middens show conch have been fished for over 1400 years (Torres, 2002) used for religious ceremonies, for trade and ornamentation, and a source of protein from its meat. Fishing pressure, previously entirely small-scale local fisheries on surrounding islands, has now developed into a large commercial trade commodity with an important fishery resource in the Caribbean area and increasing international demand for the rare meat (Berg Olsen 1989). Outside of the live meat trade, S. gigas is also known for its pearls and shells, sold by locals and tradesmen to tourist as souvenirs as a by-product of conch meat harvest. The increase in intensive fishing pressure caused by its rising commercial value since the 1970s (Cochrane et al 1996) has caused queen conch populations to decline throughout their distribution range (Stoner, 1997; Theile, 2005). This is largely due to the slow maturation growth to harvest size of 3-4 years (Davis) ensuring S. gigas are unable to offset the development of fisheries technical enhancements allowing them to fish larger quantities and at previously unobtainable depths (Wells 1989). The use of scuba and hookah gear from 1984 has now become widespread and due to the depletion of near-shore shallow water stocks because of overfishing, former deep-water refugia (20 m) is now increasingly accessible and subject to the same intense exploitation (CFMC/CFRAMP, 1999), shifting fishing efforts from near-shore to offshore areas in parts of the Bahamas, Colombia, Mexico, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (CITES, AC19 Doc. 8.3 2003). In 1986, the U.S. banned all fishing of Strombus g igas populations instead importing approx. 80% of world trade, 1,000t year-1 (NOAA 2003), from Caribbean Islands. The majority of S. gigas populations the U.S are importing from have continued to decline. CITES reviews, following species listing in 1992, report population densities in some areas to be so low that recruitment failure is a risk to local fisheries in parts of Belize, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Panama, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands with stock collapses and resulting in total or temporary closure of the fishery in Bermuda, Cuba, Colombia, Florida, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, the Virgin Islands and Venezuela (CITES AC19, Doc. 8.3 2003). The primary cause for the population decline is widely demonstrated to be commercial trade overfishing (Stoner, 1994) but Stoner (1994) implies habitat degradation may be a secondary factor, especially in the shallow water nursery habitats of seagrass meadows, which are crucial to Strombus gigas sustainab ility. There are still some larger areas that still maintain stable populations, the Bahamas (Stoner Ray, 1996), Jamaica (Stoner Schwarte 1994) and the Turks and Caicos Islands due to hatchery replacement (Bene Tewfik, 2001) as well as smaller areas of St. Lucia, St Vincent and Virgin Islands (taken from Table 1, p76 Cochrane, 1996). The significant trade review undertaken in 1995, at the 13th meeting of the Animals Committee, formulated recommendations in 1997 requiring states to prove conformity to CITES and slowly by March 1999 most states had conformed. By 2005 Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago had been removed from the Review of Significant Trade of S. gigas (CITES SC54 Doc. 42, 2006). However, CITES recognizes that despite being registered for over 10 years stock declines continue to occur (Notification No. 2006/055, 2006) and in 2006 the Animals Committee concluded that trade was of urgent concern in 3 range states and of possible concern in a further 13 (CITES SC54 Doc. 42, 2006). The important exporting countries of Haiti and Grenada have released no information and with low adult densities reported from fishing all exports from the se states have been suspended as they may currently being exploited at rates that may be unsustainable (CITES AC22 Doc. 10.1). The National Marine Fisheries Service support the CITES embargo on queen conch imports (NOAA, 2003) which will remain until evidence is provided that the CITES recommendations have been implemented (Thiele, 2001). 1.3 Biology of Strombus gigas Strombus gigas are large, soft-bodied, marine shelled gastropod molluscs. They have a thin layer of tissues between the body and the shell, a mantle, which creates a hard external spiral-shaped shell up to 30 cm in length from calcium carbonate extracted from the seawater and sediments. This outer shell develops the distinctive pink coloured flared lip that easily identifies the species and is why the shell also has a horny periostracum coating to deter predators. The body is divided into the head, the visceral mass, and the foot. posterior anterior Fig 1.2 Adult female conch without her shell (FWRI, 2006) The conch head has a pair of tentacles tipped with light-sensitive eyestalks and a long proboscis radula that has thousands of tiny denticle protrusions for feeding. The foot, at the posterior, is a pointed, sickle-shaped, hardened operculum tip used to propel forward in a unique type of hopping locomotion commonly referred to as stromboid leap propulsion. This enables escape from predators by breaking up their scent trail (FWRI, 2006). They have a siphonal canal with an indentation near the anterior end called a stromboid notch. (Hyman 1967, Abbott 1974 quoted 1.3.1 Ecology of Strombus gigas Strombus gigas inhabits the neotropical Atlantic waters of Bermuda, southern Floridian and Mexican coasts of Central America in the Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea region, and off the South America coasts of Venezuela and Brazil. Strombus gigas are herbivorous, grazing primarily on algae, grasses, and floating organic debris and are consequently usually found in warm, shallow, clear, subtidal water of oceanic or near-oceanic salinities settled on sandy substrates, in rocky habitats, on coral reefs or coral rubble sea floors amongst seagrass and algae (McCarthy, 2007; Cochrane, 1996). Strombus gigas can be found in discrete aggregations up to hundreds or thousands of individuals who actively select these preferable habitats (Stoner, 1997). Adult S. gigas are typically found at depths less than 100 meters concentrated in water 10- 30 meters deep due to the photosynthetic light requirements of algae and plant growth (Randall 1964). Predators of the Queen Conch are known to be around 130 ma rine species including various species of mollusc, lobster, turtles, crabs, sharks, rays, snappers and Nassau Grouper, (Coulston, 1987; Culp and Stoner 1999; CITES AC19 Doc 8.3; Culp et al, 1997). As a defence they bury into the sand to hide, unprotected/unburied conch being less likely to survive (Coulston 1987). Conchs burying behaviours show wide variations, possibly related to environmental conditions of water temp conch increase burying in cooler winter period (Appeldoorn 1985) and wind/sea conditions conch are more active at high tide as a response to increased predator activity in the upper intertidal zone (). The increased amount of attached organisms on the shell of older conch suggests a decrease in long-term burying activity with increases in conch size (Iverson et al, 1986). 1.3.2 Conch Reproduction In the wild, adult queen conch maintain a 1:1 sex ratio in an undisturbed population (Cochrane, 1996), and sexual maturity for males and females occurs by approximately between 3.5 and 5 years, usually when the flared lip is greater than approximately 0.5 cm thick (Appeldoorn, 1988b; Berg and Olsen, 1989). Onset of sexual maturity varies within and between different Strombus gigas populations depending on their site specific habitat quality, food availability and water depth all changing growth rates (Martin-Mora et al., 1995), with faster growth rates inducing earlier maturation (Berg, 1976). Queen conch are dioecious (McCarthy, 2007), fertilization is internal when the male inserts a verge into the females siphonal notch, the female retaining the male sperm till fertilisation during the process of laying eggs (McCarty, 2007). The seasonal reproductive period increases copulation as a linear function of bottom water temperature the summer months (Stoner et al. 1992). Water quality, food supply, a 12-hour photoperiod, and temperature limitations all negatively affect individual female pairing, copulation, and egg-laying reproduction causing a decrease in egg masses (Stoner 1992; Shawl 2004). Females lay demersal egg masses in long continuous strands up to 50 to 75 feet long containing 185,000 to 460,000 eggs in each strand (Shawl Davis 1994). These are deposited in requirement sand substrate (Shawl Davies 2004) at an average rate of 1.5m hr-1, completing in less than a day (Randall 1964). Spawning can multiple times during an egg-laying season, the length of which varies depending on geographic location (Stoner?), but lasts typically 6 8 months usually between March and October (TABLE ?) with stimuli other than temperature, such as declining photoperiod, inducing the end of reproductive activity (Stoner et al, 1992) 1.3.3 Life Cycle of Queen Conch Fig 1. 3 Life cycle of the Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Migration and Dispersal The life cycle of Strombus gigas begins by embryonic development that proceeds rapidly, dependent on temperature, after the fertilization of spawning reaching the gastrula stage after 16 hours. The pelagic larvae emerge within 72 hours 5/6 days after spawning (Cochrane 1996). This is also influenced by temperature and by the presence of phytoplankton (Stoner, 1997). By around 12 days they are lobed, free-swimming veligers, found in open water up to 100 meters deep, localised in above the thermocline, where they drift over 18-40 days in the currents of the upper layers feeding on the plankton (Posada and Appeldoorn, 1994; Stoner, 1997). During this period long distance transport by surface currents to deeper water areas (Iversen, et. al 1990) can occur up to 900km (Davis et al., 1993). Larvae then descend, 17 to 22 days after hatching, settling into the adult benthic habitats, when induced by settling cues of substrate (Boettcher and Targett 1996) and location. Larvae then require an environmental stimulus to induce metamorphose response such as the presence of specific algae foods Laurencia poitei and the epiphyte Fosliella spp. found on Thalassia testudinum (Davis, 1994) usually associated within site substratum and sediment (Davis and Stoner, 1994). Metamorphosis is usually within five days of settlement, unique in developmental history as the competence period is shorter than the precompetence period, instead of equal to or longer than the precompetence period. They are competent for only 6 days at 28 to 30C, losing this ability if the required conditions within the habitat cannot be met (Davis and Stoner, 1994). Short-term competence is ordinarily associated with metamorphosis to a broad spectrum of cues and this explains the conch response to a variety of ben thic cues found in juvenile conch seagrass habitats (Davis 1994). The larvae reach metamorphosis between 25 and 29 days turning lobes into feet while the proboscis develops to about 0.2 cm in length developing a small transparent shell within 24 hours called a protoconch (James Wood). Again development shows environmental variation for example larvae of March, April, May, and September have slower development than the larvae of June, July and August. The survival at settlement averaged 305.18% with highest survival June and July with 386.30%, lowest March (227.22%) and September (207.02%) (Brito-Manzano Aldana Aranda, 2004). Juvenile Strombus gigas Young Queen Conch (one year) settle to benthic life on sandy substrate (Cochrane, 1996) where they remain buried as they have a particularly high mortality rate (63%) from predation, and if unburied conch 1.3-3.7cm long show complete mortality (Iverson, 1989). Very few small conch have been found in nature unburied (Ray Stoner, 1995) suggesting that conch may be buried almost continuously until shell lengths reach 5-10cm, when juveniles emerge and become epibenthic, periodically reburying to avoid winter storms (CFMC 1999). After emerging juvenile S. gigas shift habitat from the area of settlement (Sandt Stoner, 1993) aggregating 0.2-2 ind./m2, up to 100,000 individuals over large areas (100 ha) of shallow depth with high tidal circulation where algae production is sufficient and moderate or dense seagrass coverage (Stoner Lally 1996) This specific habitat is chosen as it reduces mortality from predation shown by (Stoner Ray, 1993) who found that 50% of juveniles outside a seagra ss area were killed. (Stoner, 1997) deems these crucial productive nursery habitats must be protected for population stability are determined by a complex unique interaction of oceanographic features, such as seagrass/algae communities and larval recruitment. Conch Morphology Conch shell growth is deterministic; from approx. 3 years conch stops increasing in shell length, growing only by thickening of the shell, particularly the flared lip that it starts producing. At sexual maturity, which occurs at approximately 3 years (Berg 1976) and lasts approximately 7-10 months (Glazer and Berg, 1992), lip flare growth initiates (Appledoorn 1988). Both growth directions occur simultaneously until adult shell length is reached (Appledoorn 1988). Measuring shell lengths is the most accurate method to date juveniles estimates for mean shell length range from approx. 10.8cm for a 1-year old animal, 17cm for a 2-years old animal, and 20.5cm for +3years (Berg, 1976). In adults shell lip thickness increase has been used to estimate growth from maturation in years (Appeldoorn, 1988a, 1990). This is only a relative measure as the deterministic growth affects estimates of juvenile growth and therefore accurate aging, and mortality (CFMC/CFRAMP, 1999). The shell length of a dult S. gigas can decrease by bioerosion of the shell on substrate types, and interior volume of the shell can shrink with age inducing significantly smaller body size (CFMC/CFRAMP, 1999), both factors hindering accurate aging. Extreme spatial variation occurs in shell size of different S. gigas populations. Factors affecting shell size include site habitat quality, food availability and quality and water depth (Martin-Mora et al., 1995), which coupled with the presence of predators and increased depth are all thought to slow juvenile and adult conch morphometric growth. Growth rate is positively correlated to final shell length, indicated by slower growing conch tending to reach smaller final shell lengths and greater age at maturation (Alcolado, 1976). Increased predation can cause weaker, thicker or denser/heavier shells with shorter spines (Delgado et al. 2002; Stoner Davis, 1994), and increasing depth causes tighter coiling of the shell resulting in a wider, thicker shells and fewer, longer spines (Alcolado, 1976, quoted in McCarthy, 2007). 1.3.4 Migrations Conch travel up to 100 yards per day, mostly at night migrating for two reasons: Firstly, a long-lived ontogenetic migration movement of larger juveniles leaving nursery areas moving into deeper water (Stoner et al. 1988), in the direction of the seasonally synchronous tidal currents, increasing in conch density with the passage of the migration. This serves as a density-dependent or habitat-dependant dispersal mechanism for juvenile conchs from centres of recruitment (Stoner et al. 1988). The second reason is a summer migration of adults inshore to shallower water grass beds for spawning (Appledoorn 1993). This begins when temperatures start to increase (Stoner and Standt 1992; Coulston 1987) and the conch return offshore to sand or algae habitat and deeper water. Conch have also been observed to move to deeper water with age (Stoner, 1997). 1.3.5 Natural Mortality of Strombus gigas The Queen Conch is a relatively slow-growing long-lived species, reaching a maximum longevity of between 20 30 years with an average of 26. In deeper water this can be extended to 40 years (NOAA). Appeldoorn (1988) derived a relationship between age and natural mortality that exponentially decreases until the conch reaches sexual maturity (Appeldoorn, 1988). Mortality along with most other morphometric and maturity data also varies seasonally, due to habitat, predation and food limitation (Stoner and Glazer, 1998) but natural mortality of S. gigas has not been accurately quantified due to bioerosion of the shell by substrate (CITES AC19 Doc 8.3, 2003), and it is thought that aging any S. gigas specimen greater than 10 years old should be considered is unreliable, and therefore the complete lifespan of queen conch is unknown (SEDAR, 2007). 1.4 The Biological/Ecological Importance of Strombus gigas Strombus gigas is an important member of marine benthic and macrofauna communities in seagrass meadows. As a hebrivory mollusc, S. gigas regulates the abundance of seagrass detritus and algal blooms of bottom-dwelling algae such as Batophora oerstedi, performing a visual cleaning of the sediment surface from the normal light brown colour to white, clearing filamentous algae and small detrital particles (Stoner et al., 1995). By decreasing significantly the standing crop of biomass of dead or detritus remains of senescent seagrass blades, seagrass epiphytes, macrodetritus and macroalgae, without reducing living seagrass biomass, S. gigas grazing, similar to other important marine herbivory grazers such as Diadema, potentially stimulates rates of primary production of algae, macrophytes, seagrasses and the role of below ground nutrient reserves (Valentine, 1999). In comparison, S. gigas grazing on epiphytes and detritus could adversely influence other components of the benthic communit y such as amphipods and other smaller Mollusca invertebrates, which are dependent upon detritus for food or cover, reduced in numbers by S. gigas grazing. S. gigas must therefore play a major role in the trophic flux of the tropical seagrass community. Over-exploitation may cause significant ecological changes, including an increase in small grazers or rapid accumulation of organic matter in the sediments and trophic cascade changes that may reduce productivity and limit recruitment of S. gigas and all other species (Klumpp, et al 1992.). 1.5 Future Outlook and Conservation Conserving Reproductive Stocks Having ascertained as above, that conch are important to the ecosystem, the CITES inclusion highlighted global concerns, although mainly for the fisheries economy rather than ecological importance. With this well-documented decline of S. gigas that led to the CITES inclusion, research programs were developed designed to monitor conch stock and to determine how best to rehabilitate the depleted population. Attempts at researching methods to halt the decline and preserve the species have been focusing on both preserving the current stocks of native S. gigas specimens and maintaining stocks by ensuring reproduction or transplanting hatchery reared juveniles into the wild. Increasing interest in preserving the natural global stock led to a focused account of conch reproduction, potential mariculture hatcheries and maintenance of the species as a successful fisheries economy. However, to maintain any mariculture or fishery a strong healthy stock of native conch will need to be conserved. Two methods to protect and preserve high densities of native adult queen conch are at the forefront of conservation of the fisheries economy: depth refugia and marine reserves (Stoner, 1997). 1.5.1 Depth Refugia As S. gigas are herbivorous, predominantly found in well-lighted photosynthetic algal regions of shallow sub tidal zones 10-30m deep. The majority of S. gigas are therefore accessible to scuba divers driving the maximum abundance of adult conch to greater depth. Numbers at depths are generally very low (Stoner, 1997) and in response to declining shallow water populations one potential form of management for maintaining a healthy reproductive native population is to limit fishing to free diving (Posada Garcfa-Moliner, 1996). Relatively natural populations of adult conch are, in comparison, uncommon in depths 10 m showing the highest abundance at depth beyond the reach of free-diving conch fisherman. The limit would allow the survival of these small, deepwater refuge populations, ensuring some reproduction to replenish the regional stocks (). A possible problem is that because the vast majority of queen conch spends their first 2-3 years in shallow water, migrating when mature from ba nk nursery sites into deeper water, those on the bank in the fished area may be harvested before reaching water sufficiently deep to protect them from free-diving fishermen (). Also young adults and adults that do not migrate to deep water are then all accessible to free divers; the intense fishing for conch in shallow water could ultimately reduce deep-water refuge stocks (). 1.5.2 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Protected marine areas provide an alternative technique already employed to maintaining high densities of adult conch. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are the globally designated marine specific protected sites, and are used as a management tool for limiting the ecosystem effects of fishing, including the biological and socio-economic aspects. Although increasing, currently only an estimated 0.6% of the worlds oceans are designated MPAs, the largest being the Great Barrier Reef, however many of the largest can be found in the Caribbean oceans. UNEP-WCMC, 2002, defined MPAs as any area of the intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. The MPAsprotect all species and rare habitats or nursing grounds in that environment, which can include historical features such as shipwrecks, and cultural sites o f interest (such as known whale routes). MPAs aim to protect their environment according to area and species, by restricting access, mining and fishing practices, and by prioritising preservation and conservation. In extreme cases tourism is restricted, use of certain boats, and ultrasound are either banned or restricted in the conservation areas. Does Marine Protection work? Ecological Effects of MPAs There is sufficient evidence that fishing negatively affects ecosystems (Sumaila, et al, 2000) and to reduce fishing is the main principle of fishery model predictions. Models predict that the establishment of MPAs, in particular, for overexploited commercial populations, can reduce negative effects of fishing consequently maintaining local economies, and livelihoods of fishermen (Behnken, 1993). Reserve protection ensuring a natural source of maintaining species diversity for the future, creating an ecological success and benefiting sustainability of future fisheries economies, as well as rehabilitate those that have collapsed (Halpern, 2003). The scientific consensus is that, marine reserves, on average, regardless of their size, and with exceptions, result in long-lasting significantly higher density, biomass, individual size, and diversity (Lubchenco et al, 2000) when evaluated for both overall communities and by each functional group within these communities (carnivorous fishes, herbivorous fishes, planktivorous fishes/invertebrate eaters, and invertebrates) within reserves as opposed to outside the reserve (or after reserve establishment vs. before) (Halpern, 2003) and often rapid increases in the abundance, and productivity of marine organisms. By providing refuge nursery areas protecting resident species and heritage protection of important habitats such as coral, MPAs increase density of species and decrease mortality, habitat destruction and any indirect ecosystem effects. On average, research provides evidence that creating a reserve can raise mean organism size, double density, (nearly) triple biomass, and increase diversity of communities by 20-30% relative to the values for unprotected areas (Halper, 2003) and Halpern deems the results to be robust despite the many potential sources of error in the individual studies with considerable variance (Halpern, 2003). Outside reserve boundaries the few studies that have examined spill over effects (Lubche nco et al, 2000), but the increase in density and diversity of marine life, is predicted to increase reproduction potential and by permanently eliminating fishing practices, change the ecosystem from disturbed to mature (Sumaila et al, 2000) restoring community structure (McClanahan and Obura, 1995). Outside of the reserve there is potential for the abundance of exploited species to also increase in areas adjacent to reserves via regionally larval export replenishing populations (Lubechncho et al, 2000). Strombus gigas Specific MPA Restrictions Do they Work? Long-lived slow growing epibenthic species and those requiring highly structured habitat would be expected to thrive in the MPA albeit a long process rebuilding the habitat structure (Watling and Norse, 1998). For S. gigas, the establishment of marine reserves is theoretically the best way to allow populations to recover (Stoner 1997) as from a single-species point of view, MPA are designed to restore populations to pre-industrial fishing levels by reducing the probability of extinction for marine species resident within them by using fishing restrictions (Lubchenco et al, 2000). Invertebrate density trends as shown by other species and functional groups, imply diversity will be higher inside reserves but so far invertebrate biomass has been documented lower within reserves (Halpern, 2003). Indirectly the reserve may however affect numbers of S. gigas predatory fishes, and for invertebrate biomass in particular, the effectiveness depends on its position in the localised food chain. C urrently there are few S. gigas specific evaluation of the biological impact of a reserve on the stock of queen conch, the first conducted in the Turks and Caicos islands (Bene Tewfick, 2003), followed by (Stoner and Ray, 1996) comparing the density of adult queen conch in the 1984 Restricted Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park and in the fished area near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays. Both studies showed increased densities of S. gigas in the reserve as shown in Table 1, Benes results showing density 6 times higher within the reserve and S. gigas shell length significantly smaller in the reserve than in the fished areas describing the existence of a crowding effect (high density induced reduction in growth rate) within the reserve (Bene Tewfik, 2003) hypothesized due to a) reduced fishing mortality following creation of reserve b) existence of natural barriers that impede emigration of adults to outside the reserve. (Stoner, 1997) concluded that marine reserves can conserve spawners i ndicated by juvenile conch numbers increasing in Exuma Park and that the increased larval production within the reserve transporting downstream to areas of fished populations (Stoner, 1997). Table 1. Density of adult queen conch in the Exurna Cays Land and Sea Park near the island of Waderick Wells and in the fished area near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays. (mean + SE for each depth interval). (Stoner Ray, (1996) Habitat/Depth (m) Fishery Reserve Fished Area Bank 53.6 1.7 Shelf 0-2.5 0 0 0 0 2.5-5 34 22 2.2 1.7 5-10 49 18 7.2 4.1 10-15 270 85 60 47 15-20 104 58 88 32 20-25 148 72 18 9 25-30 122 70 0 0 As ecological effect results show, reserves are the best way to provide protection whilst evaluating threats to ocean communities (Lubchenco, et al, 2000), however the even limited exploitation or resumption of fishing practice within the protected area decreases documented benefits (Jennings, 1996; Attwood et al., 1997 Wantiez, 1997; Alcala and Russ, 1990). (Halpern, 2003) reports less positive results in other MPA studies as well, but these studies have been mostly disregarded as interlinked confounding factors, such reserves with unfavourable habitats (Tegner, 1993) and not protecting a sufficient portion of critical habitat (Armstrong et al., 1993) were likely to have caused the less significant result (Sumaila et al, 2000). Future Effectiveness of MPAs for Queen Conch Stocks MPAs alone may not guarantee the long-term persistence of the targeted species as external anthropogenic factors, for example pollution effects and climatic changes, may impact and damage the ecosystem in unpredictable and undetectable ways (Allison et al., 1998) but precautionary principle suggests they may provide some sort of protection. To produce effective reserves diversity of marine habitats must be encompassed alongside other management tools coupled with long term monitoring evaluating management impacts within and outside the reserves (Lubchenco et al, 2000). The effectiveness of any MPA is dependant on its size and its location in relation to life-history characteristics and habitat requirement of the targeted species the MPA aims to protect (Sumaila et al, 2000). Location and habitat requirement Both larval dispersal and adult migration patterns must be considered important. Knowledge of home range, larval dispersal, location of settlement, migration patterns, the contribution of neighbouring spawning populations and physical oceanography (Halpern, 2003; Sumaila etal, 2000) all become crucial to be considered when determining the location, size, and number of reserves necessary to protect the targeted species and increase ability to retain a sustainable population (Allison et al., 1998). Permanent or temporal closures will protect critical habitats of nurseries, spawning and feeding grounds and populations during crucial life history events such as migrations and spawning aggregations. The reserve must be not only downstream receiving a regular supply of larva from a spawning population, but must be established in locations where they will contribute to further downstream fisheries (Stoner, 1997). If the rate of adult migration to outside the reserve is fast, efficiency of t he reserve is likely to decrease, as a large proportion of individuals would still be vulnerable to exploitation (Sumaila et al., 2000). Size Dependency Successful reserves should be large enough that reproductive stock cannot migrate out, and areas that supply larvae into populations must have some level of protection as well (Stoner, 1997). Stoner, (1997) concludes that the apparent success of the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park is due, in part, to its large size. However (Halpern, 2003) states the likelihood to increase biomass or density is independent of reserve size, suggesting effects of MPAs increase directly rather than proportionally with increasing size of a reserve. Halpern acknowledges Stoners view, in that he theorises equal relative differences in biological measures between small and large reserves can translate into greater absolute differences for the larger reserves. They both conclude larger reserves are required in order to reach the conservation and protection objectives of marine reserves. Building large reserves is difficult with global boundaries and evidence is suggesting that a network of reserves that spans l arge geographic areas would encompassing enough to adequately protect and provide a stable platform for the long-term persistence of marine communities against environmental variability or anthropogenic pollution as much as a single reserve (Ballantine, 1997; Lubchenco et al, 2000) The worlds two largest coral reefs are the Great Barrier Reef in Australia followed by the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) and both are good examples of networks of MPAs. The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) extends from the southern half of the Yucatan Peninsula to the Bay Islands of Honduras incorporating the second longest barrier reef in the world (Almada-Villela et. al2003). All coral reef of the MBRS are included within MPAs, and in Honduras all areas off the north coast are included in MPAs as it has diverse assemblage of coral habitats and reef unique in the Western hemisphere are to be preserved. The network system provides the stabilization and some protection of coastal landscapes, and its regulations help preserve important habitats for all marine life, including those of commercial value, ensuring continued employment and income to indigenous people living on MBRS coastal areas. They are assisting the bordering Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras in set ting up communal policies, regulations, and institutional arrangements for the conservation and sustainable use of the area (MBRS). 1.6 Current Honduran Queen Conch Fisheries The broad shelf off north-eastern Honduras and Nicaragua is where the principal fisheries for lobsters, shrimp, and conchs are conducted, with the exception of wildlife refuges in the north Utila, north Roatan, and the northwest side of Guanaja (Miller(3)). Earlier Artisanal free diving Fishing of 1970-1980s, evolved into organized industrial commercial fishing and conchs which were so abundant in places some could be seen from shore in clear waters became depleted in shallow coastal waters spurred by a consistent demand for conch meat in the United States, expanding as scuba gear in 1984 up 37 m in the conch grounds off the north-eastern Honduras coast. Since the mid-1980s, the number of divers employed to catch lobsters and conchs from Honduran industrial vessels has increased sharply, currently totalling about 1,800 make 12, 12 trips/year, taking 15,000-30,000 pounds of conch meat/12-day trip. An estimated 50 fishermen from the Bay Islands, using only mask and fins, and 7 from Pue rto Cortes area, using scuba gear, currently seek lobsters and conchs, taking on average 2-3 conchs a day. In coastal villages eastward of La Ceiba, some fishermen catch conchs by free diving with a mask and fins 10-20 conchs/day, but sometimes none (Zuniga(8)). Only the meat of conchs is taken by cracking a hole to cut the muscle attachment from the shell, often discarding the shell (Fermin(9) or selling to a company in San Pedro Sula, which uses it for making tiles (Galindo(4)). In 1-2 dives, a diver gets about, 15-20lb up to 100-120 lbs and received US$0.95/pound for conch meat (1996). The catches are taken to Roatan, where they are repacked and sold principally in the United States. The fishermen sell to middlemen who in 1996 paid them US$1.43/pound for conch meat whos then sells in the city of La Ceiba and receives US$2.482.86/pound for conch meat (Zuniga(8)). Conch meat sold for US$3.43/pound in markets in San Pedro Sula and Tela in March 1996 (personal observ.). Aquatic produ ction Landings (it) Conch meats = 291 1.7 Honduran MPAs, The Cayos Cochinos Marine Reserve In Honduras, since 1988, 18 officially recognised and 4 proposed protected marine areas have been designated (MPA Global, Marine Protected Area Database) most recently in 2003, the Legislative Presidential decree 114-2003 designated the the Cayos Cochinos islands, off the coast of Northern Honduras, a Marine Natural Monument (Andraka Bouroncle, 2004), and the Honduran Coral Reef Foundation (HCRF) obtained protection for these islands/reefs and the responsibility of the conservation of the islands for 10 years. Fig 4: Detailed Map of the designated Cayos Cochinos Marine National Park The Cayos Cochinos MPA consists of two small islands Cayo Menor (Cochino Pequero) and Cayo Mayor (Cochinor Grande) and 13 coral cays off the north Honduran coast, where the HCRF Management Program implemented focus on the recuperation of the key habitat, taking into account the life cycle of fish, mollusc, and crustaceans, to guarantee the sustainability of the fish in the MPA. This area and management also protection of commercial specials in critical states to provide alternatives to diversify the fishing activities, to alleviate the pressure on the Cayos Cochinos, without significantly affecting the local culture of fishing and by implementing zones with regulations for the conservation and management of these resources, controlled by park rangers and local volunteers monitoring these zones (HCRF). Honduras charges artisanal fishermen to pay a $1.00 per year and industrial corporations $10 a year, for a licence which allows them to fish conch freely with no minimum length regulati on until Honduras closed season of March 16 August 31. 1.8 Aims: In 1997 prior to the establishment of the Marine Protected Area the Smithsonian Institute completed Queen Conch surveys around the islands and showed that stocks were heavily over fished with Adult S. gigas were estimated at 7.3 individuals per hectare, and Juvenile S. gigas also 7.3 individuals per hectare (Tewfik Guzman, 1998). The objective of this project was to repeat these dive surveys, measure the size of all conchs recorded and classify into size categories as in 1997, using the visual abundance survey data to observe whether the management measures implemented by Honduran Coral Reef Foundation in 2002 are protecting the Queen Conch stocks and increasing numbers within the MPA in comparison to 1997. 1.8.1 Visual Abundance Survey Data It was chosen to use visual abundance surveys for assessment of the conch populations as they give fishery-independent estimates of exploitable biomass, future recruitment, as well as habitat distribution, condition, and use by conch populations. Divers can be towed behind boats to count but the benthic nature requires that divers to survey the substrate over a measured area. This allows absolute determination of density and direct observation of individual conch on various substrate types as well as enabling collection of morphometric data. These surveys within the region are reasonably inexpensive and very accessible, short in duration given the limited shelf area of most countries. Large-scale surveys may only be needed every few years as long as other data collections continue in the interim periods. Visual surveys are particularly valuable when used with other data, such as catch and effort, and when a number of surveys have been completed (CFMC CFRAMP 1999). Visual assessments for conch have been done over the years on various spatial scales including: Berg et al. (1992a,b), Friedlander et al. (1994), Appeldoorn (1995b), Berg and Glazer (1995), Tewfik et al. (1997), Tewfik and Bene (2000), Appeldoom and Rodriguez (1994), Berg and Oisen (1989), Appeldoom and B. Rodriguez, Mahon (1990), Smith and van Neirop (1984), Stoner and Ray (1996), Tewfik (1996), Torres Rosado (1987), Weil and Laughlin (1984) and Wood and Olsen (1983).

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay - 1108 Words

The engineering of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is entirely new, yet genetics, as a field of science, has fascinated mankind for over 2,000 years. Man has always tried to bend nature around his will through selective breeding and other forms of practical genetics. Today, scientists have a greater understanding of genetics and its role in living organisms. Unfortunately, some people are trying to stop further studies in genetics, but the research being conducted today will serve to better mankind tomorrow. Among many benefits of genetic engineering are the several cures being developed for presently incurable diseases. Genetics has also opened the door way to biological solutions for world problems, as well as aid for body†¦show more content†¦With dysfunctional DNA, a cell is a pile of lipids and proteins; cancerous tumors will turn to harmless dumps of organic material, that can be filtered out by the body. DNA scissors will affect things that antibiotics cannot, like AIDS. (Not even AIDS can function without DNA). One day the only thing that will stand between medical diseases and their cure will be the analysis of their DNA. Genetics now offers a new way to solve the general problems of the world. First, genetic research makes it possible for food to be grown safer, better, and faster, without doing any damage to the environment. With todays knowledge of genetic engineering, several food companies are investigating possibilities of making more food in less time. Through a process know as gene therapy, geneticists have the ability to modify parts of genetic material in organisms. Geneticists can add attributes to crops, like tomatoes, that would make them resistant to insects. With such features, dangerous chemicals like DDT that harm the environment, plants, animals, and humans would not be needed. Other enhancements would include prolonged life spans for food products after harvesting. For example, tomatoes have been engineered to last longer so they do not have to be harvested early. Thus, it is unnecessary to spray chemicals on them to prematurely change their color. While the US has not yet approved the new crops, several countries have and are making greatShow MoreRelatedBenefits Of Genetic Engineering711 Words   |  3 PagesShould genetic engineering be allowed? â€Å"With genetic engineering, we will be able to increase the complexity of DNA, and improve the human race.† - Stephen Hawking. Genetic engineering is the genetic modification of an organism’s phenotype, also known as an organism’s genetic makeup. Genetic engineering can have its advantages and disadvantages, but I believe there are more advantages than disadvantages. There are a number of benefits that we can only discover if scientists consider to study andRead MoreBenefits Of Genetic Engineering1115 Words   |  5 Pageswill be talking about genetic engineering. What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering is the process of directly manipulating an organism’s genes or DNA in order to change its characteristics. Over the years, genetic engineering and modification has been trialled on many different things, (CHANGE SLIDE) including food such as creating seedless grapes, CHANGE SLIDE and animals such as dolly the sheep, the first cloned animal in the world. However, genetic engineering, especially on humans hasRead MoreGenetic Engineering And Its Benefits1930 Words   |  8 Pagesprocess, genetic engineering provides more benefits that far outweigh the harms. Genetic engineering, and genetics in general, is a subject unfamiliar to the general public because not only has it not had much exposure to people outside of the scientific world, but it is also extremely complex and still has several applications yet to be found. In short, genetic engineering is the modification of an organism s characteristics or traits through manipulation, or replacement, of their genetic materialRead MoreThe Benefits Of Genetic Engineering1001 Words   |  5 Pagesdonors, chemolithoautotrophy. It is by this that the authors claim that the potential for this organism to be used for the large-scale industrial production of biofuels and other useful chemicals remains largely untapped. The employment of genetic engineering to augment the autotrophic hosts productivity pathways offers hope for improved and increased productivity. Other techniques entail the transfer of the processes to heterotrophic organisms. 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In order to understand genetic engineering, the key terms in this controversy that must be defined are the following: recombinant DNA technology, cloning, gene therapy, and the humane genome project. Genetic engineering is the alteration of genetic material by direct intervention in the genetic processes with the purpose of producing new substancesRead MoreThe Potential Benefits Of Genetic Engineering1721 Words   |  7 PagesGenetic engineering is a recent development that has gained tremendous commercial appeal. The potential benefits of genetic engineering have captivated the general public and clouded their moral values. The ultimate goal of genetic engineering is to create a utopian society where problems such as disease and world hunger no longer exist. Genetically engineering humans to be ideal beings may eventually lead to the creation of a â€Å"super race.† A super race is a race of strong, healthy, and highly intelligentRead More The Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay2511 Words   |  11 PagesThesis statement: The benefits of genetic engineering far outweigh its potential for misuse. II. Genetic Engineering A. Definition of Genetic Engineering. (#6) B. Who invented Genetic Engineering Gregor Mendel (Christopher Lampton #7) Thomas Hunt Morgan (Christopher Lampton #7) III. Benefits of Genetic Engineering A. Genetic Screening (Laurence E. Karp #4) B. Gene Therapy (Renato Dulbecco #6) C. Cloning D. Genetic Surgery (Christopher Lampton #7) E. Benefits in Agriculture (DavidRead MoreThe Potential Benefits Of Genetic Engineering1914 Words   |  8 Pagesa controversial issue is new ways to produce human clones. Cloning and genetic engineering and has been used to clone unicellular organisms, plants, amphibians and simple mammals. This has led to advances in industry, medicine and agriculture. Newer techniques in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to clone more complex mammals and opened up the possibility of cloning humans. Although there are many potential benefits to this technology, the prospect of cloning humans has raised many practicalRead MoreThe Potential Benefits Of Genetic Engineering2181 Words   |  9 Pagesapplication of new techniques in genetic engineering to produce human clones. Up until now genetic engineering and cloning has been used to clone plants, unicellular organisms, amphibians and simple mammals. This has led to significant advances in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Newer techni ques in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to clone more complex mammals and opened up the possibility of cloning humans. Although there are many potential benefits to this technology, the prospect