Thursday, July 23, 2020
Oh, sweet freedom Oh, the joys of being in college. Finally, weâre independent! We can do whatever we want, even if that entails eating nothing but ramen noodles until we get scurvy and staying up until 4AM day after day. (Actually, Iâd still get a full(ish) night of sleep every night even if I did stay up until 4, what with none of my classes this semester starting before 11AM. Go ahead. Start throwing things at me while I rub it in. I deserve it.) Of course, with independence comes responsibility. According to my parents, living on your own is the first step on the pathway to getting really old. Or they could have said becoming an adult â" as a teenager, I unconsciously start tuning out the ends of all of their sentences. Itâs an uncontrollable reflex, I swear! Anyway, this whole concept of responsibility apparently has to do with novel concepts like time management and being able to make food for myself. The latter is beyond terrifying, as I have the rare ability to set even water on fire. Thankfully, some of the people on my floor are much better cooks than I am, and every now and then theyâre willing to share. Even the most independent of people sometimes need others to help them. Having to fend for myself for the last two months has had me missing the security of home a bit, though. (Letâs ignore the part where itâs currently 77 degrees in South Florida, while here itâs 48 degrees and I canât feel my toes.) Iâm not the only one â" many of my fellow frosh were in the same âMIT IS TAKING OVER MY LIFE AND I WANT TO GO HOOOOOOOOOMEâ mentality. Every now and then you want someone else to take care of you a little, you know? So last week Thursday, when my mom flew in from home for MITâs Family Weekend, I rushed into her arms and squealed. Donât even say you wouldnât have done the same, as I was witness to plenty of others having similar reunions. My mom tried to get a sense of what life at MIT was like, including sitting in on an 18.02 class, crossing Harvard Bridge to have dinner in Boston, and a trip to Star Market for groceries. It was here where we realized that parental instincts never die, as there were plenty of other students shopping with their parents. And by shopping, I mean arguing about which items are really and truly necessary â" Do you need pasta? You have it? You need more. Iâm sure you need more pasta. How about a tomato? (Hi, Mom.) Aside from that, we bought some paint. My room has been screaming Paint me! NOW! for the last month and a half, since painting is allowed in Senior House and Institute White is boring. Speaking of Senior House, our tire swing died a week ago. Well, not completely. During Orientation this year, a few of the other residents were worried about the swingâs future, as the branch it had happily hung from for the last thirty years was dying. Last week, an arborist told the House Manager that the branch needed to be cut down and the swing removed to ensure the safety of the students. This caused quite the kerfluffle here (yes, I said kerfluffle. Let it go.), as the swing is an essential part of the Haus. Three hours later, though, a few students and one of our GRTs had the swing up on a different branch of the tree. You can see what remains of the branch the swing used to hang happily from. And now, itâll never be the same. As the condition of the entire tree has yet to be determined, the future of our tire swing is still in jeopardy. For now, though, weâll take what we can. On a completely unrelated note, it looks like MITâs Early Action applications are due in about a week. If anyone has any burning unresolved questions (or any not-so-burning yet unresolved questions), send them my way and Iâll answer them as best as I can. After all, I did apply to MIT once. Oh, wait. That was what, two seconds ago?
Saturday, June 27, 2020
Chapter 1. Introduction 1.1 Strombus gigas, A Threatened But Protected Species 65 species of Strombidae are still in existence and the majority of those are found in the Indo-Pacific Oceans (ConchNews). 6 species of Strombidae are found throughout the Caribbean and Florida oceans (McCarthy, 2007): S. alatus, S. costatus, S. gallus, S. gigas, S. pugilis, and S. raninus, one of which, Strombus gigas, known as the Queen Conch, has highest commercial fisheries value of the six species and is commercially threatened. In 1990 the parties to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention) included S. gigas in Annex II of its Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife (SPAW Protocol) as a species that may be used on a rational and sustainable basis and that requires protective measures (NOAA). Consequently on 11th June 1992 the United States listed S. gigas under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), Appendix II; classi fied as commercially threatened (Theile, 2005). S. gigas then became the first large-scale fisheries product regulated by CITES (NOAA). This requires countries to harvest at a sustainable rate before they can obtain a permit to export (Thiele, 2001). The SPAW Protocol and CITES treaties are generally a positive step for the species, assisting efforts to ensure use and trade of S. gigas, however this is largely a commercial move and should not be confused with meaning it is officially on the endangered/threatened species list. S. gigas is simply on a list of species, fauna and flora not yet threatened or endangered, but with legal commitment by the governments to prevent them becoming so by implementing plans for management by establishment of closed seasons and regulation of their harvest and trade (Thiele, 2005). The Caribbean Fishery Management Council supports a regional International Queen Conch initiative, to promote a common international management strategy for the sustainable use of S resources in the Caribbean region, by making recommendations to address specific issues. E.g. International Queen Conch Initiatives (FAO 2003). In January 1991, 12 of the 14 Governments of the Caribbean Community officially launched the CARI COM Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management Programme (CFRAMP) to promote sustainable use and conservation of the fisheries resources, setting up the 1994 Lobster and Conch Resource Assessment Unit to provide data on conch and lobster resources in the Caribbean (Haughton 2004). Fig 1.1 The wider Caribbean region showing hypothetical Exclusive Economic Zones of countries those of CARICOM countries are shaded grey (Haughton, 2004). 1.2 Commercial Importance History Of Queen Conch Fisheries S. gigas, have been harvested by Caribbean fishermen for centuries (Stoner 1997), in some regions old conch shell middens show conch have been fished for over 1400 years (Torres, 2002) used for religious ceremonies, for trade and ornamentation, and a source of protein from its meat. Fishing pressure, previously entirely small-scale local fisheries on surrounding islands, has now developed into a large commercial trade commodity with an important fishery resource in the Caribbean area and increasing international demand for the rare meat (Berg Olsen 1989). Outside of the live meat trade, S. gigas is also known for its pearls and shells, sold by locals and tradesmen to tourist as souvenirs as a by-product of conch meat harvest. The increase in intensive fishing pressure caused by its rising commercial value since the 1970s (Cochrane et al 1996) has caused queen conch populations to decline throughout their distribution range (Stoner, 1997; Theile, 2005). This is largely due to the slow maturation growth to harvest size of 3-4 years (Davis) ensuring S. gigas are unable to offset the development of fisheries technical enhancements allowing them to fish larger quantities and at previously unobtainable depths (Wells 1989). The use of scuba and hookah gear from 1984 has now become widespread and due to the depletion of near-shore shallow water stocks because of overfishing, former deep-water refugia (20 m) is now increasingly accessible and subject to the same intense exploitation (CFMC/CFRAMP, 1999), shifting fishing efforts from near-shore to offshore areas in parts of the Bahamas, Colombia, Mexico, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (CITES, AC19 Doc. 8.3 2003). In 1986, the U.S. banned all fishing of Strombus g igas populations instead importing approx. 80% of world trade, 1,000t year-1 (NOAA 2003), from Caribbean Islands. The majority of S. gigas populations the U.S are importing from have continued to decline. CITES reviews, following species listing in 1992, report population densities in some areas to be so low that recruitment failure is a risk to local fisheries in parts of Belize, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Panama, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands with stock collapses and resulting in total or temporary closure of the fishery in Bermuda, Cuba, Colombia, Florida, Mexico, the Netherlands Antilles, the Virgin Islands and Venezuela (CITES AC19, Doc. 8.3 2003). The primary cause for the population decline is widely demonstrated to be commercial trade overfishing (Stoner, 1994) but Stoner (1994) implies habitat degradation may be a secondary factor, especially in the shallow water nursery habitats of seagrass meadows, which are crucial to Strombus gigas sustainab ility. There are still some larger areas that still maintain stable populations, the Bahamas (Stoner Ray, 1996), Jamaica (Stoner Schwarte 1994) and the Turks and Caicos Islands due to hatchery replacement (Bene Tewfik, 2001) as well as smaller areas of St. Lucia, St Vincent and Virgin Islands (taken from Table 1, p76 Cochrane, 1996). The significant trade review undertaken in 1995, at the 13th meeting of the Animals Committee, formulated recommendations in 1997 requiring states to prove conformity to CITES and slowly by March 1999 most states had conformed. By 2005 Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Bahamas, Belize, Colombia, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago had been removed from the Review of Significant Trade of S. gigas (CITES SC54 Doc. 42, 2006). However, CITES recognizes that despite being registered for over 10 years stock declines continue to occur (Notification No. 2006/055, 2006) and in 2006 the Animals Committee concluded that trade was of urgent concern in 3 range states and of possible concern in a further 13 (CITES SC54 Doc. 42, 2006). The important exporting countries of Haiti and Grenada have released no information and with low adult densities reported from fishing all exports from the se states have been suspended as they may currently being exploited at rates that may be unsustainable (CITES AC22 Doc. 10.1). The National Marine Fisheries Service support the CITES embargo on queen conch imports (NOAA, 2003) which will remain until evidence is provided that the CITES recommendations have been implemented (Thiele, 2001). 1.3 Biology of Strombus gigas Strombus gigas are large, soft-bodied, marine shelled gastropod molluscs. They have a thin layer of tissues between the body and the shell, a mantle, which creates a hard external spiral-shaped shell up to 30 cm in length from calcium carbonate extracted from the seawater and sediments. This outer shell develops the distinctive pink coloured flared lip that easily identifies the species and is why the shell also has a horny periostracum coating to deter predators. The body is divided into the head, the visceral mass, and the foot. posterior anterior Fig 1.2 Adult female conch without her shell (FWRI, 2006) The conch head has a pair of tentacles tipped with light-sensitive eyestalks and a long proboscis radula that has thousands of tiny denticle protrusions for feeding. The foot, at the posterior, is a pointed, sickle-shaped, hardened operculum tip used to propel forward in a unique type of hopping locomotion commonly referred to as stromboid leap propulsion. This enables escape from predators by breaking up their scent trail (FWRI, 2006). They have a siphonal canal with an indentation near the anterior end called a stromboid notch. (Hyman 1967, Abbott 1974 quoted https://bellsouthpwp.net/c/u/culpsb/conchnews/strombidae). 1.3.1 Ecology of Strombus gigas Strombus gigas inhabits the neotropical Atlantic waters of Bermuda, southern Floridian and Mexican coasts of Central America in the Gulf of Mexico Caribbean Sea region, and off the South America coasts of Venezuela and Brazil. Strombus gigas are herbivorous, grazing primarily on algae, grasses, and floating organic debris and are consequently usually found in warm, shallow, clear, subtidal water of oceanic or near-oceanic salinities settled on sandy substrates, in rocky habitats, on coral reefs or coral rubble sea floors amongst seagrass and algae (McCarthy, 2007; Cochrane, 1996). Strombus gigas can be found in discrete aggregations up to hundreds or thousands of individuals who actively select these preferable habitats (Stoner, 1997). Adult S. gigas are typically found at depths less than 100 meters concentrated in water 10- 30 meters deep due to the photosynthetic light requirements of algae and plant growth (Randall 1964). Predators of the Queen Conch are known to be around 130 ma rine species including various species of mollusc, lobster, turtles, crabs, sharks, rays, snappers and Nassau Grouper, (Coulston, 1987; Culp and Stoner 1999; CITES AC19 Doc 8.3; Culp et al, 1997). As a defence they bury into the sand to hide, unprotected/unburied conch being less likely to survive (Coulston 1987). Conchs burying behaviours show wide variations, possibly related to environmental conditions of water temp conch increase burying in cooler winter period (Appeldoorn 1985) and wind/sea conditions conch are more active at high tide as a response to increased predator activity in the upper intertidal zone (). The increased amount of attached organisms on the shell of older conch suggests a decrease in long-term burying activity with increases in conch size (Iverson et al, 1986). 1.3.2 Conch Reproduction In the wild, adult queen conch maintain a 1:1 sex ratio in an undisturbed population (Cochrane, 1996), and sexual maturity for males and females occurs by approximately between 3.5 and 5 years, usually when the flared lip is greater than approximately 0.5 cm thick (Appeldoorn, 1988b; Berg and Olsen, 1989). Onset of sexual maturity varies within and between different Strombus gigas populations depending on their site specific habitat quality, food availability and water depth all changing growth rates (Martin-Mora et al., 1995), with faster growth rates inducing earlier maturation (Berg, 1976). Queen conch are dioecious (McCarthy, 2007), fertilization is internal when the male inserts a verge into the females siphonal notch, the female retaining the male sperm till fertilisation during the process of laying eggs (McCarty, 2007). The seasonal reproductive period increases copulation as a linear function of bottom water temperature the summer months (Stoner et al. 1992). Water quality, food supply, a 12-hour photoperiod, and temperature limitations all negatively affect individual female pairing, copulation, and egg-laying reproduction causing a decrease in egg masses (Stoner 1992; Shawl 2004). Females lay demersal egg masses in long continuous strands up to 50 to 75 feet long containing 185,000 to 460,000 eggs in each strand (Shawl Davis 1994). These are deposited in requirement sand substrate (Shawl Davies 2004) at an average rate of 1.5m hr-1, completing in less than a day (Randall 1964). Spawning can multiple times during an egg-laying season, the length of which varies depending on geographic location (Stoner?), but lasts typically 6 8 months usually between March and October (TABLE ?) with stimuli other than temperature, such as declining photoperiod, inducing the end of reproductive activity (Stoner et al, 1992) 1.3.3 Life Cycle of Queen Conch Fig 1. 3 Life cycle of the Queen Conch, Strombus gigas 184.108.40.206 Migration and Dispersal The life cycle of Strombus gigas begins by embryonic development that proceeds rapidly, dependent on temperature, after the fertilization of spawning reaching the gastrula stage after 16 hours. The pelagic larvae emerge within 72 hours 5/6 days after spawning (Cochrane 1996). This is also influenced by temperature and by the presence of phytoplankton (Stoner, 1997). By around 12 days they are lobed, free-swimming veligers, found in open water up to 100 meters deep, localised in above the thermocline, where they drift over 18-40 days in the currents of the upper layers feeding on the plankton (Posada and Appeldoorn, 1994; Stoner, 1997). During this period long distance transport by surface currents to deeper water areas (Iversen, et. al 1990) can occur up to 900km (Davis et al., 1993). Larvae then descend, 17 to 22 days after hatching, settling into the adult benthic habitats, when induced by settling cues of substrate (Boettcher and Targett 1996) and location. Larvae then require an environmental stimulus to induce metamorphose response such as the presence of specific algae foods Laurencia poitei and the epiphyte Fosliella spp. found on Thalassia testudinum (Davis, 1994) usually associated within site substratum and sediment (Davis and Stoner, 1994). Metamorphosis is usually within five days of settlement, unique in developmental history as the competence period is shorter than the precompetence period, instead of equal to or longer than the precompetence period. They are competent for only 6 days at 28 to 30C, losing this ability if the required conditions within the habitat cannot be met (Davis and Stoner, 1994). Short-term competence is ordinarily associated with metamorphosis to a broad spectrum of cues and this explains the conch response to a variety of ben thic cues found in juvenile conch seagrass habitats (Davis 1994). The larvae reach metamorphosis between 25 and 29 days turning lobes into feet while the proboscis develops to about 0.2 cm in length developing a small transparent shell within 24 hours called a protoconch (James Wood). Again development shows environmental variation for example larvae of March, April, May, and September have slower development than the larvae of June, July and August. The survival at settlement averaged 305.18% with highest survival June and July with 386.30%, lowest March (227.22%) and September (207.02%) (Brito-Manzano Aldana Aranda, 2004). 220.127.116.11 Juvenile Strombus gigas Young Queen Conch (one year) settle to benthic life on sandy substrate (Cochrane, 1996) where they remain buried as they have a particularly high mortality rate (63%) from predation, and if unburied conch 1.3-3.7cm long show complete mortality (Iverson, 1989). Very few small conch have been found in nature unburied (Ray Stoner, 1995) suggesting that conch may be buried almost continuously until shell lengths reach 5-10cm, when juveniles emerge and become epibenthic, periodically reburying to avoid winter storms (CFMC 1999). After emerging juvenile S. gigas shift habitat from the area of settlement (Sandt Stoner, 1993) aggregating 0.2-2 ind./m2, up to 100,000 individuals over large areas (100 ha) of shallow depth with high tidal circulation where algae production is sufficient and moderate or dense seagrass coverage (Stoner Lally 1996) This specific habitat is chosen as it reduces mortality from predation shown by (Stoner Ray, 1993) who found that 50% of juveniles outside a seagra ss area were killed. (Stoner, 1997) deems these crucial productive nursery habitats must be protected for population stability are determined by a complex unique interaction of oceanographic features, such as seagrass/algae communities and larval recruitment. 18.104.22.168 Conch Morphology Conch shell growth is deterministic; from approx. 3 years conch stops increasing in shell length, growing only by thickening of the shell, particularly the flared lip that it starts producing. At sexual maturity, which occurs at approximately 3 years (Berg 1976) and lasts approximately 7-10 months (Glazer and Berg, 1992), lip flare growth initiates (Appledoorn 1988). Both growth directions occur simultaneously until adult shell length is reached (Appledoorn 1988). Measuring shell lengths is the most accurate method to date juveniles estimates for mean shell length range from approx. 10.8cm for a 1-year old animal, 17cm for a 2-years old animal, and 20.5cm for +3years (Berg, 1976). In adults shell lip thickness increase has been used to estimate growth from maturation in years (Appeldoorn, 1988a, 1990). This is only a relative measure as the deterministic growth affects estimates of juvenile growth and therefore accurate aging, and mortality (CFMC/CFRAMP, 1999). The shell length of a dult S. gigas can decrease by bioerosion of the shell on substrate types, and interior volume of the shell can shrink with age inducing significantly smaller body size (CFMC/CFRAMP, 1999), both factors hindering accurate aging. Extreme spatial variation occurs in shell size of different S. gigas populations. Factors affecting shell size include site habitat quality, food availability and quality and water depth (Martin-Mora et al., 1995), which coupled with the presence of predators and increased depth are all thought to slow juvenile and adult conch morphometric growth. Growth rate is positively correlated to final shell length, indicated by slower growing conch tending to reach smaller final shell lengths and greater age at maturation (Alcolado, 1976). Increased predation can cause weaker, thicker or denser/heavier shells with shorter spines (Delgado et al. 2002; Stoner Davis, 1994), and increasing depth causes tighter coiling of the shell resulting in a wider, thicker shells and fewer, longer spines (Alcolado, 1976, quoted in McCarthy, 2007). 1.3.4 Migrations Conch travel up to 100 yards per day, mostly at night migrating for two reasons: Firstly, a long-lived ontogenetic migration movement of larger juveniles leaving nursery areas moving into deeper water (Stoner et al. 1988), in the direction of the seasonally synchronous tidal currents, increasing in conch density with the passage of the migration. This serves as a density-dependent or habitat-dependant dispersal mechanism for juvenile conchs from centres of recruitment (Stoner et al. 1988). The second reason is a summer migration of adults inshore to shallower water grass beds for spawning (Appledoorn 1993). This begins when temperatures start to increase (Stoner and Standt 1992; Coulston 1987) and the conch return offshore to sand or algae habitat and deeper water. Conch have also been observed to move to deeper water with age (Stoner, 1997). 1.3.5 Natural Mortality of Strombus gigas The Queen Conch is a relatively slow-growing long-lived species, reaching a maximum longevity of between 20 30 years with an average of 26. In deeper water this can be extended to 40 years (NOAA). Appeldoorn (1988) derived a relationship between age and natural mortality that exponentially decreases until the conch reaches sexual maturity (Appeldoorn, 1988). Mortality along with most other morphometric and maturity data also varies seasonally, due to habitat, predation and food limitation (Stoner and Glazer, 1998) but natural mortality of S. gigas has not been accurately quantified due to bioerosion of the shell by substrate (CITES AC19 Doc 8.3, 2003), and it is thought that aging any S. gigas specimen greater than 10 years old should be considered is unreliable, and therefore the complete lifespan of queen conch is unknown (SEDAR, 2007). 1.4 The Biological/Ecological Importance of Strombus gigas Strombus gigas is an important member of marine benthic and macrofauna communities in seagrass meadows. As a hebrivory mollusc, S. gigas regulates the abundance of seagrass detritus and algal blooms of bottom-dwelling algae such as Batophora oerstedi, performing a visual cleaning of the sediment surface from the normal light brown colour to white, clearing filamentous algae and small detrital particles (Stoner et al., 1995). By decreasing significantly the standing crop of biomass of dead or detritus remains of senescent seagrass blades, seagrass epiphytes, macrodetritus and macroalgae, without reducing living seagrass biomass, S. gigas grazing, similar to other important marine herbivory grazers such as Diadema, potentially stimulates rates of primary production of algae, macrophytes, seagrasses and the role of below ground nutrient reserves (Valentine, 1999). In comparison, S. gigas grazing on epiphytes and detritus could adversely influence other components of the benthic communit y such as amphipods and other smaller Mollusca invertebrates, which are dependent upon detritus for food or cover, reduced in numbers by S. gigas grazing. S. gigas must therefore play a major role in the trophic flux of the tropical seagrass community. Over-exploitation may cause significant ecological changes, including an increase in small grazers or rapid accumulation of organic matter in the sediments and trophic cascade changes that may reduce productivity and limit recruitment of S. gigas and all other species (Klumpp, et al 1992.). 1.5 Future Outlook and Conservation Conserving Reproductive Stocks Having ascertained as above, that conch are important to the ecosystem, the CITES inclusion highlighted global concerns, although mainly for the fisheries economy rather than ecological importance. With this well-documented decline of S. gigas that led to the CITES inclusion, research programs were developed designed to monitor conch stock and to determine how best to rehabilitate the depleted population. Attempts at researching methods to halt the decline and preserve the species have been focusing on both preserving the current stocks of native S. gigas specimens and maintaining stocks by ensuring reproduction or transplanting hatchery reared juveniles into the wild. Increasing interest in preserving the natural global stock led to a focused account of conch reproduction, potential mariculture hatcheries and maintenance of the species as a successful fisheries economy. However, to maintain any mariculture or fishery a strong healthy stock of native conch will need to be conserved. Two methods to protect and preserve high densities of native adult queen conch are at the forefront of conservation of the fisheries economy: depth refugia and marine reserves (Stoner, 1997). 1.5.1 Depth Refugia As S. gigas are herbivorous, predominantly found in well-lighted photosynthetic algal regions of shallow sub tidal zones 10-30m deep. The majority of S. gigas are therefore accessible to scuba divers driving the maximum abundance of adult conch to greater depth. Numbers at depths are generally very low (Stoner, 1997) and in response to declining shallow water populations one potential form of management for maintaining a healthy reproductive native population is to limit fishing to free diving (Posada Garcfa-Moliner, 1996). Relatively natural populations of adult conch are, in comparison, uncommon in depths 10 m showing the highest abundance at depth beyond the reach of free-diving conch fisherman. The limit would allow the survival of these small, deepwater refuge populations, ensuring some reproduction to replenish the regional stocks (). A possible problem is that because the vast majority of queen conch spends their first 2-3 years in shallow water, migrating when mature from ba nk nursery sites into deeper water, those on the bank in the fished area may be harvested before reaching water sufficiently deep to protect them from free-diving fishermen (). Also young adults and adults that do not migrate to deep water are then all accessible to free divers; the intense fishing for conch in shallow water could ultimately reduce deep-water refuge stocks (). 1.5.2 Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Protected marine areas provide an alternative technique already employed to maintaining high densities of adult conch. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are the globally designated marine specific protected sites, and are used as a management tool for limiting the ecosystem effects of fishing, including the biological and socio-economic aspects. Although increasing, currently only an estimated 0.6% of the worlds oceans are designated MPAs, the largest being the Great Barrier Reef, however many of the largest can be found in the Caribbean oceans. UNEP-WCMC, 2002, defined MPAs as any area of the intertidal or subtidal terrain, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. The MPAsprotect all species and rare habitats or nursing grounds in that environment, which can include historical features such as shipwrecks, and cultural sites o f interest (such as known whale routes). MPAs aim to protect their environment according to area and species, by restricting access, mining and fishing practices, and by prioritising preservation and conservation. In extreme cases tourism is restricted, use of certain boats, and ultrasound are either banned or restricted in the conservation areas. 22.214.171.124 Does Marine Protection work? Ecological Effects of MPAs There is sufficient evidence that fishing negatively affects ecosystems (Sumaila, et al, 2000) and to reduce fishing is the main principle of fishery model predictions. Models predict that the establishment of MPAs, in particular, for overexploited commercial populations, can reduce negative effects of fishing consequently maintaining local economies, and livelihoods of fishermen (Behnken, 1993). Reserve protection ensuring a natural source of maintaining species diversity for the future, creating an ecological success and benefiting sustainability of future fisheries economies, as well as rehabilitate those that have collapsed (Halpern, 2003). The scientific consensus is that, marine reserves, on average, regardless of their size, and with exceptions, result in long-lasting significantly higher density, biomass, individual size, and diversity (Lubchenco et al, 2000) when evaluated for both overall communities and by each functional group within these communities (carnivorous fishes, herbivorous fishes, planktivorous fishes/invertebrate eaters, and invertebrates) within reserves as opposed to outside the reserve (or after reserve establishment vs. before) (Halpern, 2003) and often rapid increases in the abundance, and productivity of marine organisms. By providing refuge nursery areas protecting resident species and heritage protection of important habitats such as coral, MPAs increase density of species and decrease mortality, habitat destruction and any indirect ecosystem effects. On average, research provides evidence that creating a reserve can raise mean organism size, double density, (nearly) triple biomass, and increase diversity of communities by 20-30% relative to the values for unprotected areas (Halper, 2003) and Halpern deems the results to be robust despite the many potential sources of error in the individual studies with considerable variance (Halpern, 2003). Outside reserve boundaries the few studies that have examined spill over effects (Lubche nco et al, 2000), but the increase in density and diversity of marine life, is predicted to increase reproduction potential and by permanently eliminating fishing practices, change the ecosystem from disturbed to mature (Sumaila et al, 2000) restoring community structure (McClanahan and Obura, 1995). Outside of the reserve there is potential for the abundance of exploited species to also increase in areas adjacent to reserves via regionally larval export replenishing populations (Lubechncho et al, 2000). 126.96.36.199 Strombus gigas Specific MPA Restrictions Do they Work? Long-lived slow growing epibenthic species and those requiring highly structured habitat would be expected to thrive in the MPA albeit a long process rebuilding the habitat structure (Watling and Norse, 1998). For S. gigas, the establishment of marine reserves is theoretically the best way to allow populations to recover (Stoner 1997) as from a single-species point of view, MPA are designed to restore populations to pre-industrial fishing levels by reducing the probability of extinction for marine species resident within them by using fishing restrictions (Lubchenco et al, 2000). Invertebrate density trends as shown by other species and functional groups, imply diversity will be higher inside reserves but so far invertebrate biomass has been documented lower within reserves (Halpern, 2003). Indirectly the reserve may however affect numbers of S. gigas predatory fishes, and for invertebrate biomass in particular, the effectiveness depends on its position in the localised food chain. C urrently there are few S. gigas specific evaluation of the biological impact of a reserve on the stock of queen conch, the first conducted in the Turks and Caicos islands (Bene Tewfick, 2003), followed by (Stoner and Ray, 1996) comparing the density of adult queen conch in the 1984 Restricted Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park and in the fished area near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays. Both studies showed increased densities of S. gigas in the reserve as shown in Table 1, Benes results showing density 6 times higher within the reserve and S. gigas shell length significantly smaller in the reserve than in the fished areas describing the existence of a crowding effect (high density induced reduction in growth rate) within the reserve (Bene Tewfik, 2003) hypothesized due to a) reduced fishing mortality following creation of reserve b) existence of natural barriers that impede emigration of adults to outside the reserve. (Stoner, 1997) concluded that marine reserves can conserve spawners i ndicated by juvenile conch numbers increasing in Exuma Park and that the increased larval production within the reserve transporting downstream to areas of fished populations (Stoner, 1997). Table 1. Density of adult queen conch in the Exurna Cays Land and Sea Park near the island of Waderick Wells and in the fished area near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays. (mean + SE for each depth interval). (Stoner Ray, (1996) Habitat/Depth (m) Fishery Reserve Fished Area Bank 53.6 1.7 Shelf 0-2.5 0 0 0 0 2.5-5 34 22 2.2 1.7 5-10 49 18 7.2 4.1 10-15 270 85 60 47 15-20 104 58 88 32 20-25 148 72 18 9 25-30 122 70 0 0 As ecological effect results show, reserves are the best way to provide protection whilst evaluating threats to ocean communities (Lubchenco, et al, 2000), however the even limited exploitation or resumption of fishing practice within the protected area decreases documented benefits (Jennings, 1996; Attwood et al., 1997 Wantiez, 1997; Alcala and Russ, 1990). (Halpern, 2003) reports less positive results in other MPA studies as well, but these studies have been mostly disregarded as interlinked confounding factors, such reserves with unfavourable habitats (Tegner, 1993) and not protecting a sufficient portion of critical habitat (Armstrong et al., 1993) were likely to have caused the less significant result (Sumaila et al, 2000). 188.8.131.52 Future Effectiveness of MPAs for Queen Conch Stocks MPAs alone may not guarantee the long-term persistence of the targeted species as external anthropogenic factors, for example pollution effects and climatic changes, may impact and damage the ecosystem in unpredictable and undetectable ways (Allison et al., 1998) but precautionary principle suggests they may provide some sort of protection. To produce effective reserves diversity of marine habitats must be encompassed alongside other management tools coupled with long term monitoring evaluating management impacts within and outside the reserves (Lubchenco et al, 2000). The effectiveness of any MPA is dependant on its size and its location in relation to life-history characteristics and habitat requirement of the targeted species the MPA aims to protect (Sumaila et al, 2000). 184.108.40.206.1 Location and habitat requirement Both larval dispersal and adult migration patterns must be considered important. Knowledge of home range, larval dispersal, location of settlement, migration patterns, the contribution of neighbouring spawning populations and physical oceanography (Halpern, 2003; Sumaila etal, 2000) all become crucial to be considered when determining the location, size, and number of reserves necessary to protect the targeted species and increase ability to retain a sustainable population (Allison et al., 1998). Permanent or temporal closures will protect critical habitats of nurseries, spawning and feeding grounds and populations during crucial life history events such as migrations and spawning aggregations. The reserve must be not only downstream receiving a regular supply of larva from a spawning population, but must be established in locations where they will contribute to further downstream fisheries (Stoner, 1997). If the rate of adult migration to outside the reserve is fast, efficiency of t he reserve is likely to decrease, as a large proportion of individuals would still be vulnerable to exploitation (Sumaila et al., 2000). 220.127.116.11.2 Size Dependency Successful reserves should be large enough that reproductive stock cannot migrate out, and areas that supply larvae into populations must have some level of protection as well (Stoner, 1997). Stoner, (1997) concludes that the apparent success of the Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park is due, in part, to its large size. However (Halpern, 2003) states the likelihood to increase biomass or density is independent of reserve size, suggesting effects of MPAs increase directly rather than proportionally with increasing size of a reserve. Halpern acknowledges Stoners view, in that he theorises equal relative differences in biological measures between small and large reserves can translate into greater absolute differences for the larger reserves. They both conclude larger reserves are required in order to reach the conservation and protection objectives of marine reserves. Building large reserves is difficult with global boundaries and evidence is suggesting that a network of reserves that spans l arge geographic areas would encompassing enough to adequately protect and provide a stable platform for the long-term persistence of marine communities against environmental variability or anthropogenic pollution as much as a single reserve (Ballantine, 1997; Lubchenco et al, 2000) The worlds two largest coral reefs are the Great Barrier Reef in Australia followed by the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) and both are good examples of networks of MPAs. The Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) extends from the southern half of the Yucatan Peninsula to the Bay Islands of Honduras incorporating the second longest barrier reef in the world (Almada-Villela et. al2003). All coral reef of the MBRS are included within MPAs, and in Honduras all areas off the north coast are included in MPAs as it has diverse assemblage of coral habitats and reef unique in the Western hemisphere are to be preserved. The network system provides the stabilization and some protection of coastal landscapes, and its regulations help preserve important habitats for all marine life, including those of commercial value, ensuring continued employment and income to indigenous people living on MBRS coastal areas. They are assisting the bordering Mexico, Belize, Guatemala and Honduras in set ting up communal policies, regulations, and institutional arrangements for the conservation and sustainable use of the area (MBRS). 1.6 Current Honduran Queen Conch Fisheries The broad shelf off north-eastern Honduras and Nicaragua is where the principal fisheries for lobsters, shrimp, and conchs are conducted, with the exception of wildlife refuges in the north Utila, north Roatan, and the northwest side of Guanaja (Miller(3)). Earlier Artisanal free diving Fishing of 1970-1980s, evolved into organized industrial commercial fishing and conchs which were so abundant in places some could be seen from shore in clear waters became depleted in shallow coastal waters spurred by a consistent demand for conch meat in the United States, expanding as scuba gear in 1984 up 37 m in the conch grounds off the north-eastern Honduras coast. Since the mid-1980s, the number of divers employed to catch lobsters and conchs from Honduran industrial vessels has increased sharply, currently totalling about 1,800 make 12, 12 trips/year, taking 15,000-30,000 pounds of conch meat/12-day trip. An estimated 50 fishermen from the Bay Islands, using only mask and fins, and 7 from Pue rto Cortes area, using scuba gear, currently seek lobsters and conchs, taking on average 2-3 conchs a day. In coastal villages eastward of La Ceiba, some fishermen catch conchs by free diving with a mask and fins 10-20 conchs/day, but sometimes none (Zuniga(8)). Only the meat of conchs is taken by cracking a hole to cut the muscle attachment from the shell, often discarding the shell (Fermin(9) or selling to a company in San Pedro Sula, which uses it for making tiles (Galindo(4)). In 1-2 dives, a diver gets about, 15-20lb up to 100-120 lbs and received US$0.95/pound for conch meat (1996). The catches are taken to Roatan, where they are repacked and sold principally in the United States. The fishermen sell to middlemen who in 1996 paid them US$1.43/pound for conch meat whos then sells in the city of La Ceiba and receives US$2.482.86/pound for conch meat (Zuniga(8)). Conch meat sold for US$3.43/pound in markets in San Pedro Sula and Tela in March 1996 (personal observ.). Aquatic produ ction Landings (it) Conch meats = 291 1.7 Honduran MPAs, The Cayos Cochinos Marine Reserve In Honduras, since 1988, 18 officially recognised and 4 proposed protected marine areas have been designated (MPA Global, Marine Protected Area Database) most recently in 2003, the Legislative Presidential decree 114-2003 designated the the Cayos Cochinos islands, off the coast of Northern Honduras, a Marine Natural Monument (Andraka Bouroncle, 2004), and the Honduran Coral Reef Foundation (HCRF) obtained protection for these islands/reefs and the responsibility of the conservation of the islands for 10 years. Fig 4: Detailed Map of the designated Cayos Cochinos Marine National Park The Cayos Cochinos MPA consists of two small islands Cayo Menor (Cochino Pequero) and Cayo Mayor (Cochinor Grande) and 13 coral cays off the north Honduran coast, where the HCRF Management Program implemented focus on the recuperation of the key habitat, taking into account the life cycle of fish, mollusc, and crustaceans, to guarantee the sustainability of the fish in the MPA. This area and management also protection of commercial specials in critical states to provide alternatives to diversify the fishing activities, to alleviate the pressure on the Cayos Cochinos, without significantly affecting the local culture of fishing and by implementing zones with regulations for the conservation and management of these resources, controlled by park rangers and local volunteers monitoring these zones (HCRF). Honduras charges artisanal fishermen to pay a $1.00 per year and industrial corporations $10 a year, for a licence which allows them to fish conch freely with no minimum length regulati on until Honduras closed season of March 16 August 31. 1.8 Aims: In 1997 prior to the establishment of the Marine Protected Area the Smithsonian Institute completed Queen Conch surveys around the islands and showed that stocks were heavily over fished with Adult S. gigas were estimated at 7.3 individuals per hectare, and Juvenile S. gigas also 7.3 individuals per hectare (Tewfik Guzman, 1998). The objective of this project was to repeat these dive surveys, measure the size of all conchs recorded and classify into size categories as in 1997, using the visual abundance survey data to observe whether the management measures implemented by Honduran Coral Reef Foundation in 2002 are protecting the Queen Conch stocks and increasing numbers within the MPA in comparison to 1997. 1.8.1 Visual Abundance Survey Data It was chosen to use visual abundance surveys for assessment of the conch populations as they give fishery-independent estimates of exploitable biomass, future recruitment, as well as habitat distribution, condition, and use by conch populations. Divers can be towed behind boats to count but the benthic nature requires that divers to survey the substrate over a measured area. This allows absolute determination of density and direct observation of individual conch on various substrate types as well as enabling collection of morphometric data. These surveys within the region are reasonably inexpensive and very accessible, short in duration given the limited shelf area of most countries. Large-scale surveys may only be needed every few years as long as other data collections continue in the interim periods. Visual surveys are particularly valuable when used with other data, such as catch and effort, and when a number of surveys have been completed (CFMC CFRAMP 1999). Visual assessments for conch have been done over the years on various spatial scales including: Berg et al. (1992a,b), Friedlander et al. (1994), Appeldoorn (1995b), Berg and Glazer (1995), Tewfik et al. (1997), Tewfik and Bene (2000), Appeldoom and Rodriguez (1994), Berg and Oisen (1989), Appeldoom and B. Rodriguez, Mahon (1990), Smith and van Neirop (1984), Stoner and Ray (1996), Tewfik (1996), Torres Rosado (1987), Weil and Laughlin (1984) and Wood and Olsen (1983).
Friday, May 22, 2020
The engineering of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is entirely new, yet genetics, as a field of science, has fascinated mankind for over 2,000 years. Man has always tried to bend nature around his will through selective breeding and other forms of practical genetics. Today, scientists have a greater understanding of genetics and its role in living organisms. Unfortunately, some people are trying to stop further studies in genetics, but the research being conducted today will serve to better mankind tomorrow. Among many benefits of genetic engineering are the several cures being developed for presently incurable diseases. Genetics has also opened the door way to biological solutions for world problems, as well as aid for bodyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦With dysfunctional DNA, a cell is a pile of lipids and proteins; cancerous tumors will turn to harmless dumps of organic material, that can be filtered out by the body. DNA scissors will affect things that antibiotics cannot, like AIDS. (Not even AIDS can function without DNA). One day the only thing that will stand between medical diseases and their cure will be the analysis of their DNA. Genetics now offers a new way to solve the general problems of the world. First, genetic research makes it possible for food to be grown safer, better, and faster, without doing any damage to the environment. With todays knowledge of genetic engineering, several food companies are investigating possibilities of making more food in less time. Through a process know as gene therapy, geneticists have the ability to modify parts of genetic material in organisms. Geneticists can add attributes to crops, like tomatoes, that would make them resistant to insects. With such features, dangerous chemicals like DDT that harm the environment, plants, animals, and humans would not be needed. Other enhancements would include prolonged life spans for food products after harvesting. For example, tomatoes have been engineered to last longer so they do not have to be harvested early. Thus, it is unnecessary to spray chemicals on them to prematurely change their color. While the US has not yet approved the new crops, several countries have and are making greatShow MoreRelatedBenefits Of Genetic Engineering711 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesShould genetic engineering be allowed? Ã¢â¬Å"With genetic engineering, we will be able to increase the complexity of DNA, and improve the human race.Ã¢â¬ - Stephen Hawking. Genetic engineering is the genetic modification of an organismÃ¢â¬â¢s phenotype, also known as an organismÃ¢â¬â¢s genetic makeup. Genetic engineering can have its advantages and disadvantages, but I believe there are more advantages than disadvantages. There are a number of benefits that we can only discover if scientists consider to study andRead MoreBenefits Of Genetic Engineering1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswill be talking about genetic engineering. What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering is the process of directly manipulating an organismÃ¢â¬â¢s genes or DNA in order to change its characteristics. Over the years, genetic engineering and modification has been trialled on many different things, (CHANGE SLIDE) including food such as creating seedless grapes, CHANGE SLIDE and animals such as dolly the sheep, the first cloned animal in the world. However, genetic engineering, especially on humans hasRead MoreGenetic Engineering And Its Benefits1930 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesprocess, genetic engineering provides more benefits that far outweigh the harms. Genetic engineering, and genetics in general, is a subject unfamiliar to the general public because not only has it not had much exposure to people outside of the scientific world, but it is also extremely complex and still has several applications yet to be found. In short, genetic engineering is the modification of an organism s characteristics or traits through manipulation, or replacement, of their genetic materialRead MoreThe Benefits Of Genetic Engineering1001 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdonors, chemolithoautotrophy. It is by this that the authors claim that the potential for this organism to be used for the large-scale industrial production of biofuels and other useful chemicals remains largely untapped. The employment of genetic engineering to augment the autotrophic hosts productivity pathways offers hope for improved and increased productivity. Other techniques entail the transfer of the processes to heterotrophic organisms. Autotrophic production is said to be more efficientRead MoreBenefits Of Genetic Engineering909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesResearch suggests that genetic engineering will be a vital tool in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases because current drug therapies are becoming less effective and genetic engineering approaches to mosquito management have shown promising results. c. Preview of main points i. Malaria in particular has become more of a threat as the parasite causing the disease develops resistance to the most common drugs used to treat it. ii. Scientists have been successful at engineering several species of mosquitoesRead MoreThe Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesreceiving a grim diagnosis. There are many aspects of genetic engineering and to thoroughly understand it looking into each is absolutely necessary. In order to understand genetic engineering, the key terms in this controversy that must be defined are the following: recombinant DNA technology, cloning, gene therapy, and the humane genome project. Genetic engineering is the alteration of genetic material by direct intervention in the genetic processes with the purpose of producing new substancesRead MoreThe Potential Benefits Of Genetic Engineering1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGenetic engineering is a recent development that has gained tremendous commercial appeal. The potential benefits of genetic engineering have captivated the general public and clouded their moral values. The ultimate goal of genetic engineering is to create a utopian society where problems such as disease and world hunger no longer exist. Genetically engineering humans to be ideal beings may eventually lead to the creation of a Ã¢â¬Å"super race.Ã¢â¬ A super race is a race of strong, healthy, and highly intelligentRead More The Benefits of Genetic Engineering Essay2511 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThesis statement: The benefits of genetic engineering far outweigh its potential for misuse. II. Genetic Engineering A. Definition of Genetic Engineering. (#6) B. Who invented Genetic Engineering Gregor Mendel (Christopher Lampton #7) Thomas Hunt Morgan (Christopher Lampton #7) III. Benefits of Genetic Engineering A. Genetic Screening (Laurence E. Karp #4) B. Gene Therapy (Renato Dulbecco #6) C. Cloning D. Genetic Surgery (Christopher Lampton #7) E. Benefits in Agriculture (DavidRead MoreThe Potential Benefits Of Genetic Engineering1914 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesa controversial issue is new ways to produce human clones. Cloning and genetic engineering and has been used to clone unicellular organisms, plants, amphibians and simple mammals. This has led to advances in industry, medicine and agriculture. Newer techniques in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to clone more complex mammals and opened up the possibility of cloning humans. Although there are many potential benefits to this technology, the prospect of cloning humans has raised many practicalRead MoreThe Potential Benefits Of Genetic Engineering2181 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesapplication of new techniques in genetic engineering to produce human clones. Up until now genetic engineering and cloning has been used to clone plants, unicellular organisms, amphibians and simple mammals. This has led to significant advances in agriculture, industry, and medicine. Newer techni ques in genetic engineering have enabled scientists to clone more complex mammals and opened up the possibility of cloning humans. Although there are many potential benefits to this technology, the prospect
Monday, May 18, 2020
Hamlets Transformation from Good to Evil in the Play Hamlet by William Shakespeare HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Transformation from Good to Evil In the play Hamlet by Shakespeare, Hamlet endures exorbitant amount of pain and anger because of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, his mothers hasty remarriage, and the loss of his only love, Ophelia. The losses that Hamlet has to deal with, the anger and lack of forgiveness that he allows to build within himself, allows HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s true thoughts and character to be revealed through his soliloquies, which are reviewed and discussed throughout this essay. In his first soliloquy, Hamlet reveals his wishes that he could just melt away and be no more, with death comes relief from this world, but he beliefs that suicide is immoralÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hamlet is now developing into a cunning, deceitful person. He is now devising a plan to exploit Clauduis for his crime, the re-enactment of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. Also, Hamlet questioning his ability to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, he wonders if he too much of a coward. Hamlet admits that he does lack gull, a character trait that cannot be compromised when he is to avenge his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Although Hamlet might perceive himself as a coward, by re-enacting his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, he is exposing his knowledge of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder, which puts his own life in danger. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous soliloquy shows HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s deepest thoughts since the beginning of the story. Hamlet first contemplates whether is better to just live with the pain of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder or to take action and seek revenge for his father. Hamlet also believes that death is the same as going to sleep, forever. He thinks that if he could end all his troubles and sorrows by going to sleep, this is something that he would most welcome. His hesitation to kill himself is because when you sleep, you have dreams, which would be disturbing. Hamlet also believes that a corrupt leader, Clauduis, is now ruling the country that once was ruled by a very noble king. Hamlet believes he has to live with the tyrantÃ¢â¬â¢s injustice, the rudeness of man, the slow process of receiving justice for their crimes and the unfairness that the innocent or humble have to suffer. Hamlet also reflects on that how ourShow MoreRelated Hamlets Transformation from Good to Evil in Shakespeare s Hamlet833 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHamlets Transformation from Good to Evil in Shakespeares Hamlet HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s transforms from good to evil in the play Hamlet by Shakespeare. Hamlet experiences a lot of pain and becomes very anger because of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s bad remarriage, and the loss of his only love, Ophelia. The losses that Hamlet has to deal with are the anger and lack of forgiveness build in himself. This allows HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s true thoughts and character to be revealed through his soliloquies. First, HamletRead MoreHamlet and Gertrudes Relationship Essay824 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHamlet by William Shakespeare focuses on the title character plotting vengeance against Claudius for his fathers murder to capture the Danish crown. The new king is also Hamlets uncle and now stepdad due to the marriage with his mother, Gertrude. Through a sequence of events, the protagonist eventually avenges his father, although both his mother and himself fall to a tragic fate as well. Throughout the course of the play, the relationship between Hamlet and Gertrude changes from strained to aRead MoreRevenge in Hamlet by William Shakespeare1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Imagine a play in which a prince is seeking revenge of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder and ultimately succeeds. Now, imagine a play with the same plot, but with young love, dramatic scenes denying this love, and true madness that leads to suicide. Which sounds better? Which would hold your attention longer? Odds are that the second p lay described is the choice you have chosen or unknowingly chosen in your thoughts. If it is not, then you would be missing out on one of the most famous plays written by WilliamRead MoreProblems in the Revenge Tragedy: William Shakespeares Hamlet2646 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages Shakespeares Hamlet presents the generic elements found in Renaissance revenge tragedies (Revenge Tragedy). However, although Hamlet is a revenge tragedy by definition, Shakespeare complicates the basic revenge plot by creating three revenge plots out of one. By adding significant innovations, Shakespeare creates three concentric rings of revenge (Frye 90), depicting an indecisive protagonist who is an intellectual rather than a physical hero, an ambiguous ghost, and several problematic aspectsRead MoreA Heros Journey3224 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesA HeroÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey: Hamlet and Simba What images come to mind as you reflect on your childhood? Playgrounds, blackboards, and soccer balls may be among the warmest of memories. Yet for many mermaids swim their thoughts, princesses get swept of their feet, and lions roar to their loyal place in the animal kingdom. There is no doubt that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s entertainment has most of its touch using classical influences. Walt Disney has produced animated films that have captured the heart and imagination of audiencesRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare2573 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesThroughout Hamlet, William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s eloquence and use of thematic imagery helps convey HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s state of mind as troubled and ambiguous, establishing him as a tragic hero whose feelings of death are nothing short of an enigma. From the opening scene with the ominous apparition to the brutality of the final scene, death is seemingly portrayed further than that of its simplistic physical nature. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s thought provoking a nd introspective nature causes him to analyze death on different levelsRead MoreSociety : A Realm Of Doubt2191 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSociety: A Realm of Doubt Human beings are inherently social creatures. Individuals thrive from communication and self-expression. Thus, they create intricate interactive structuresÃ that stem from the cooperation and interdependence amongst groups. Ã¢â¬Å"Society is something that precedes the individual,Ã¢â¬ as Aristotle contends in his Politics; Ã¢â¬Å"It comes to be for the sake of life, and exists for the sake of the good life.Ã¢â¬ Nevertheless, man has become increasingly dubious of the world around him, recognizingRead MoreSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words Ã |Ã 75 PagesP age |1 Top 30 Examples to Use as SAT Essay Evidence An exclusive special report from eSATPrepTips.com By Christian Heath P age |2 Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 4 Adventurers and Explorers: Amelia Earhart (Female Aviation Pioneer) ................................................................................................ 5 Christopher
Thursday, May 7, 2020
The Changing Place of Slaves and Slavery in the American Nation Tomeka T. DeBruce HIS 203: American History to 1865 Prof. Corinne Barker October 15, 2012 The Changing Place of Slaves and Slavery in the American Nation In the beginning as early as 1502 the European slave traders shipped 11 to 16 million slaves to America. The English colonists had indentured servants instead of slaves. Indentured servants were servants that had a contract and only worked for a certain period of time. African American slaves were used when the English men were running out of indentured servants. The first African American slave was in 1619. They also had Irish, Scottish, English and German indentured servants. Over half the indentured slaves in theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦And it shows no clear connection between social identity and votes for the Republicans or Democrats in the Northern County. By 1662, the partus sequitur ventrem principle was adopted by the southern colonies. It openly discriminated the slaves by confining them into a certain category of population. Their children were supposed to inherit the status of their mothers regardless of whom the father was. In other words, they would still be non citizens. This was prompted by the enactment of several legislations like the 1712 Slave Codes which was later adopted by nearly all the colonial states. Together with many amendments and court rulings, this migrant group was stripped of American citizenship alongside other privileges exclusively reserved for the whites. It clearly stipulated that no slave shall enjoy freedom of movement, association, sell or buy a property, be taught how to read and write, employed, demand for payment, plant corns, domesticate pets or possess any goods or weapons. If so, and caught, they would be punished by whipping, nose slitting, branding, chopping off the ear, castration or killing (Stockwell, 2012). The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order issued to the agencies of the United States by President Lincoln during the civil war that proclaimed that all slaves in the Confederate territories be forever free. The Emancipation Proclamation was limited in many ways. It applied only to states that had seceded from theShow MoreRelatedLincoln, Race, And The Spirit Of The 761247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLincoln the greatest American president would be surprised to discover that he endorsed black colonizations, did not promote civil and political equality for blacks in the free state of IllinoisÃ¢â¬ (3). By having Lucas E. Morel expressing that, Ã¢â¬Å"endorsed black colonizationsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"not promote civil and political equalityÃ¢â¬ shows two ways of how Lincoln was great, but at the same time was not. If Lincoln allowed black colonizations he would demonstrate equality for them, since the freed slaves are still notRead MoreAmerican Slavery Essay983 Words Ã |Ã 4 P agesSlavery, especially in America, has been an age old topic of riveting discussions. Specialist and other researchers have been digging around for countless years looking for answers to the many questions that such an activity provided. They have looked into the economics of slavery, slave demography, slave culture, slave treatment, and slave-owner ideology (p. ix). Despite slavery being a global issue, the main focus is always on American slavery. Peter Kolchin effectively illustrates in his bookRead MoreThe Legacy Of Abraham Lincoln1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesindividualsÃ¢â¬ . Slavery was a struggle that America had to overcome in the 1800s in order for America to progress. At the time, slaves were also going through hard times by getting separated from their families and going through excessive hard work on the plantations. Even though it was a struggle for the north, and the slaves, but not for the south since it was a benefit for them. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was put in to the Presidential office and would have a major impact on our nation by affectingRead MoreThe Slavery Of The United States935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinstitution he knew that to oppose the issue could tear the nation completely apart. In 1820, during James MonroeÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidency the Missouri Compromise was approved. The Missouri Compromise essentially regulated the balance for the admittance of Slave and Free States into the Union. In Thomas FlemingÃ¢â¬â¢s A Disease in the Public Mind the author, states that with the CompromiseÃ¢â¬â¢s passing that Jefferson declared that it signaled the end of the Union of the nation as they had once known it. With this idea in mindRead MoreSlavery During The American Revolution Essay1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSlavery was held out until 1865, but during this time period abolitionist are trying to do anything to stop slavery. The reason being is because slavery wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t slavery anymore. Slavery was beginning to become more advance due t o technological innovation. The Abolitionist are people that were against slavery and would boycott anything to get rid of slavery. The argument that the Abolitionist had during this time period was its conditions as violating ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s principals and rights to equalityRead MoreThe United States And The Civil War1516 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStates experienced one of its troubled moments in History. The nation was suffering from cilvil disorder, moral values, political struggles amongst a dividing nation. The Ã¢â¬Å"slaveÃ¢â¬ states ( The South ) created the Confederation States of America, thus separating from the Northern States. Both sides were growing in opposites directions, economically and different social views. Of the industrialization and the evolving workforce, slavery and its cruel practices were the biggest concern of both partiesRead MoreThe Civil War Was A Long Term Issue1622 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa momentous time in American history. America was a country d ivided with two regions waging war on each other. The north and the south were split apart into the Union and the Confederacy. South Carolina was the first to secede from the Union and was followed by ten more states. The complexity as to why eleven states seceded from the Union has been a question that historians have explored for years. Explanations such as political and economic issues have been uncovered. Slavery has also been an explanationRead MoreSlavery During The 19th Century1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSlavery, an issue never addressed in the 19th century, but needed to be. It was a huge, controversial subject in the past, affecting the blacks, as well as the people of the North and South due to their strong beliefs and differences in opinion. Southerners treated slaves poorly because they believed they were better than African Americans. Though, we are all equal, the majority of people did not see the world that way back then. Slavery was unfair and had a horrible effect on the slaves. AlthoughRead MoreThe Legacy Of The Antebellum Period1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Antebellum period, meaning Ã¢â¬Å"pre-warÃ¢â¬ in Latin, is defined in American History as the period before the Civil War and after the War of 1812. It was marked by the rise of abolition and the steady polarization of the nation between the viewpoints of pro and anti-slavery and the people behind them. The two sides bitterly argued for their cause. Advocates of slavery included religion, economics, morals, politics, and even the Constitution to further their arguments; likewise, abolitionists used similarRead MoreSimilarities And Differences Between The North And The South During Antebellum1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessignificant changes took place in terms of political, social and economic effects in America. The United States economy was changed from an underdeveloped country of frontiersmen and farmers into an industrialized economy. The South American depended on agriculture while t he Northern part had many industries. The two parts differed in terms of slavery policies in the country as the south advocated for preservation of slaves while the North championed abolition of slavery policies. In addition, during
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Protestant Reformation indicated that a human can Ã¢â¬Å"connect to God and can do so without the aid of a priest.Ã¢â¬ The ecclesiology behind this is basically what aids me in my ministry. Peterson, in his book Essential Church, explains Ã¢â¬Å"the primary affirmation is not that each person is his or her own priest but that each Christian can be a priest, advocate, intercessor, and evangelist to others.Ã¢â¬ William Willimon, Pastor: the Theology and Practice of Ordained Ministry, highlights a variety of ways in which a pastor functions. In this paper, I am going to explain the ways in which my current ministry setting connects with the concept of priest as pastor in relation to worship and the connect and context of pastoral care while teaching others that they are able to accomplish the same task. Willimon explains that Ã¢â¬Å"all of the pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s sheepherding takes its purpose and content from the pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership of worship.Ã¢â¬ Willimon indic ates several points in which I agree with and a few that I struggle with. As a pastor, we assume a responsibility for the people who attend the church. With that responsibility, we also are responsible Ã¢â¬Å"to God for the flock.Ã¢â¬ That responsibility is not to be taken lightly. It is through the worship that pastors have an incredible opportunity to tough the life of many souls. Although it is viewed by many as the pastor touching the souls; it is truly God touching the souls and utilizing the pastor as the vehicle. If the question is Ã¢â¬Å"whoShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Dangerous Calling1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesby Paul David Tripp digs deep into the heart of pastoral ministry. Tripp unfolds the pastoral ministry of today to encourage and warn young and old pastors through stories, the Gospel and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Word. In Dangerous Calling, the book dissects the pastorÃ¢â¬â¢s life into three sections: Examining Pastoral Culture, The Danger of Losing Your Awe, and The D anger of Arrival. In each section, there are deep and real truths about pastoral ministry. In pastoral ministry, the heart makes or breaks the ministryRead MoreThe Shape of Practical Theology638 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBook Report: The Shape of Practical Theology In The Shape of Practical Theology: Empowering Ministry with Theological Praxis, Ray Anderson attempts what he considers a new approach to modern Christianity. Anderson believes that the modern church is plagued by a significant divide between theology and practical Christianity. Many churches approach these two aspects of religion as if they are separate, rather the practical sides of Christianity lacking. Therefore, Andersons goal in the book isRead MoreThe Three Models Of The Christian Church1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescontract society.Ã¢â¬ First of all any model of ministry should be designed to mirror the image of Christ. According to Wesley Carr a model of ministry is a way of interpreting life and itsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences as moments of the divine. Through pastoral practice we strive to help fellow human beings develop and become Christ like believers. Our main goal should be to respond biblically, always putting God first, and following ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s example in our behavior. Mark 10:45 Ã¢â¬Å"For even the Son of ManRead MoreMy Personal Theology Of Preaching Essay1819 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNovember 6, 2016 RStump Personal Theology of Preaching My personal theology of preaching has evolved in surprising and inspiring ways this semester as my pastoral identity has become clearer through my exegetical explorations, further discernment of my pastoral call, and my ministerial experiences with both my supervisor and the church members at my supervised ministry placement. 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Read MorePersonal Theology Of Preaching And Ministry Essay1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Personal Theology Of Preaching And Ministry Nicole Vogel 12/6/2016 SEPL610 Practice of Preaching Professor Suzanne Duchesne As a future minister, I recognize the importance in understanding my theological perspective which has an effect on my understanding of the role as a minster and particularly the role of preaching. OneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal theology affects the neurological wiring in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s brain which unconsciously influences decisions and actions. There are specific theological views that IRead MoreReflection Administration For Effective Ministry1078 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbiblical principles into business literature. While there is a danger in adopting business principles in the church without discernment, business should more openly acknowledge the contribution of biblical principles that shape economics and business practices and the church should reciprocate in kind. 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string(66) " system ought to be consistent, quite often this is not the case\." What is value system? In simple way value system means the principle of right and wrong that are accepted by an individual or a social group. Values can be defined as broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. As such, values reflect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of right and wrong or what Ã¢â¬Å"oughtÃ¢â¬ to be. We will write a custom essay sample on Value System in Nepal or any similar topic only for you Order Now 40Ã¢â¬Å"Equal rights for allÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"People should be treated with respect and dignityÃ¢â¬ are representative of values. Values tend to influence attitudes and behavior.For example, if you value equal rights for all and you go to work for an organization that treats its managers much better than it does its workers, you may form the attitude that the company is an unfair place to work; consequently, you may not produce well or may perhaps leave the company. It is likely that if the company had had a more egalitarian policy, your attitude and behaviors would have been more positive. A value system is in essence the ordering and prioritization of the ethical and ideological values that an individual or society holds. While two individuals or groups may share a set of common values, they may differ in their determination of which values in that set have precedence over others. The two individuals or groups are said to have different value systems, even though they may have many values in common, if their prioritization of values differs, or if there are different exceptions they attach to these values. Groups and individuals whose differing value systems have many values in common may still wind up in conflict, ideological or physical, with each other, because of the differences in their value systems.People with differing value systems will thus disagree on the rightness or wrongness of certain actions, both in the abstract and in specific circumstances. In essence, a value system (if sufficiently well-defined) is a formalization of a moral code. The premise behind the discipline of rigorously examining value systems and the differences between them (given the provisional name ethonomics) is that an understanding of these differences in prioritization of values can lead to greater understanding about the politics (and motivations) of individuals and groups.While political discourse in recent times has frequently focused on the Ã¢â¬Å"valuesÃ¢â¬ held by the people engaging in the discourse (be they candidates, office holders, or media pundits), in reality those being compared share many (perhaps most) values in common. It is in their prioritization of those values that they differ, causing them (as a result of these different prioritizations) to come to different conclusions about what is right and wrong, and to take different actions accordingly.One example of a simple formal value system is Isaac AsimovÃ¢â¬â¢s Three Laws of Robotics, which is intended as value system (of sorts) for robots in the hypothetical future of AsimovÃ¢â¬â¢s science fiction novels. Simply distilled, the laws stipulate that: * human life is of primary importance and value (Ã¢â¬Å"A robot may not harm a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. Ã¢â¬Å") * orders given by human beings to robots are secondary, to be obeyed as long as they do not violate the first law (Ã¢â¬Å"A robot must obey the orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. ) * a robotÃ¢â¬â¢s own existence is of tertiary value, meaning that a robot should preserve its own l ife only if the other two laws have been satisfactorily complied with (Ã¢â¬Å"A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. Ã¢â¬Å") Naturally, this is a very simplistic set of values, but the idea behind formalization of value systems is that more complex value systems that apply to human society might be derived or mapped from similar principles and structures, and that conflicts between such value systems might be resolved rationally.Definitions Values In order to define value systems, we need to define the characteristics of values that could be represented in a value system. The values that a group or person holds may fall into several different categories. The ones that usually concern us in the area of value systems are the ethical and the ideological. * Ethical values may be thought of as those values which serve to distinguish between good and bad, right and wrong, and moral and immoral. At a societal level, these values frequently form a basis for what is permitted and what is prohibited. Ideological values deal with the broader or more abstract areas of politics, religion, economics, and social mores. In theory, the broader ideological values should derive logically as natural consequences of the particulars of fundamental ethical values and their prioritizations. But although ideally a value system ought to be consistent, quite often this is not the case. You read "Value System in Nepal" in category "Papers" Value Systems As mentioned earlier, a value system is the ordering and prioritization of the ethical and ideological values that an individual or society holds.The specific prioritizations may lead to designated exceptions invoked because one value is deemed more important than another (e. g. , Ã¢â¬Å"lying is wrong, but lying to save someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s life is acceptable, because human life is more valuable (more highly valued) than the principle that lying is wrongÃ¢â¬ ). Regardless of whether or not value systems are formed logically, they determine for individuals and societies what actions they are likely to act and how those actions are likely to be justified (or perhaps Ã¢â¬ËrationalizedÃ¢â¬â¢). Characteristics of Value SystemsValue systems can be categorized along multiple axes: * They can be personal, held by an individual and applicable only to an individual, or they can be communal or societal, defined by and applying to a community or society. Communal value sys tems may be legal codes take on the force of law in many societies. * They can be internally consistent, where the broader ideological values derive logically as natural consequences of the particulars of fundamental ethical values, and where values do not contradict each other, or they can be inconsistent.Although ideally a value system ought to be consistent, quite often this is not the case in practice. Note that valuing the consistency of a value system is itself a sort of Ã¢â¬Ëmeta-valueÃ¢â¬â¢, that could be present or absent in a given value system. * They can be idealized value systems (ideal representations of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s or groupÃ¢â¬â¢s value prioritizations) or realized value systems (how such a value system is manifested in reality, in the actions and decisions of the individual or group).Idealized value systems tend to be absolute, in that they are codified as a strict set of proscriptions on behavior, while realized value systems contain conditional exceptions that are rules to resolve collisions between values in pract ical circumstances. Personal vs. Communal A value system may be held by a group of people, a community or society, or it might be held by an individual. An individual personÃ¢â¬â¢s value system might be consistent with or equivalent to the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s value system. Consistency does not imply equivalence, though.An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s value system might even hold the person to a higher standard, and still be consistent with the communityÃ¢â¬â¢s value system. (Consistency within a value system, described below, refers to the degree to which contradictions and overt situational exceptions are absent from that value system; consistency between value systems means that any action that might be taken in one value system would not contradict the rules associated with another. ) Exceptions One way of looking at differences between value systems is to think of the exceptions to the Ã¢â¬Å"rulesÃ¢â¬ associated with values.These could be abstract exceptions (which are generalized enough in the way they are defined to take hold in all situations) and situational exceptions (which only can be said to be applied in very specific sit uations). The more generalized the exception, the more useful it is in a wider context for defining a consistent value system. In general, abstract exceptions serve to reinforce the prioritization of values, e. g. : Lying is wrong, but lying to save someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s life is acceptable, because preserving a human life is more valuable (more highly valued) than the adhering to the principle that lying is wrong.In a formal value system (idealized or realized), the default exception associated with each value is assumed to be Ã¢â¬Å"as long as no higher-priority value is violatedÃ¢â¬ . However, this hierarchical structure may be too simplistic in practice, and explicit exceptions may need to be specified. Examples of exceptions in practice: * We may commonly agree that telling the truth is an important positive value, and that conversely deception is inherently wrong. But we make both abstract and situational exceptions for circumstances where we may assert that lying is acceptable behavior. Thus lying to avoid causing another person pain as a general rule would be considered an abstract exception, while lying in a particular situation because a specific person, if lied to, might do a specific thing at a specific time would be considered a situational exception. * People may agree that stealing is wrong, but some people may believe that stealing if you are starving and want to feed yourself and your loved ones is more acceptable than stealing if you are a abitual thief who makes a living stealing from people, or if you are an already wealthy person whose greed leads you to steal from your partners, your investors, or those you do business with. Others may find nothing wrong with stealing from faceless corporations and business establishments but may frown upon stealing from individuals. Some may define certain acts to qualify as not stealing if they fit into some of these categories. * People who think that killing is wrong might make an exception for someone acting in s elf-defense, placing a higher value on preservation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own life than on the principle of Ã¢â¬Å"thou shalt not killÃ¢â¬ .Someone in the military might accept the value that killing another person is wrong yet may see nothing wrong with killing someone (in self-defense or not) in the course of or following the orders of a military commander (assumed to have a valid reason for ordering the killing), placing a higher value on discipline/loyalty and Ã¢â¬Å"defending oneÃ¢â¬â¢s countryÃ¢â¬ . Conversely, a conscientious objector might prioritize the value that killing is wrong not only over military actions but even over self-defense. Many people in the business world might include the Golden Rule (which says Ã¢â¬Å"Do unto others as you would have others do unto youÃ¢â¬ ) in their value system, but in practice they might place higher priority on the values like Ã¢â¬Å"Every man for himselfÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Let the buyer bewareÃ¢â¬ . Conversely, another person might find that prioritization morally repugnant, and accuse the businessman of being unethical (or even of a form of theft) if he sells merchandise he knows to be shoddy, or deceives those he tries to do business with. ConsistencyA value system whose exceptions are abstract, generalized enough to be used in all situations, is said to be an internally consistent value system. On the other hand, a value system whose exceptions are highly situational, or whose exceptions are inconsistently applied, is said to be an internally inconsistent. A value systemÃ¢â¬â¢s consistency (or lack thereof) does not necessarily say anything about how Ã¢â¬ËgoodÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËevilÃ¢â¬â¢ it is. A value system that declares that lying and murder are acceptable, that essentially endorses a Ã¢â¬Ëmight makes rightÃ¢â¬â¢ morality, could be internally consistent in its approach.Likewise, an internally inconsistent value system, loaded with inconsistently applied situational exceptions, might be considered perfectly acceptable if the Ã¢â¬Ëmeta-valueÃ¢â¬â¢ of consistent application of values is not part of the value system. (The paradox here is that the absence of this value in a value system makes it consistent, because there is no constraint that says it must be consistent. It could be argued that those who explicitly omit this meta-value from their value system implicit endorse consistency as a value in that act of deliberate omission. On the other hand, those who hold this value ) Idealized vs.Realized These exceptions, especially when they are implicitly rather than explicitly defined, often yield a difference between an idealized value system and the realized value system. The idealized value system is the simple listing of values (in priority order) that a person or society would purport that they employ in determining right and wrong. The realized value system is the one they actually use in day-to-day life. While people claiming to employ a particular value system might say they place more value on x than y, more often than not there are deviations from this in practice. A consistent value system A religion may list a strong set of positive values, but its adherents and even those who are leaders of the religion may stray from those in practice. Idealized value systems often list strict rules (perhaps without any prioritizing order) but do not carefully define exceptions, abstract or situational. Realized value systems, in practice, often have a number of exceptions associated with them, but they may not be explicitly defined or consistently applied. Absolutists hold to their idealized value system and claim no exceptions other than the default.Defining Values Some fundamental values that most people seem to share, at least in theory, are: * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to hurt, to harm, or especially to kill another person. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to steal from another person. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to lie. Ã¢â¬ In practice, realized examples of these values would be a good deal more complicated, with exceptions already embedded within them. * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to hurt another person, except in self-defense to keep them from hurting you, or if it is agreed upon with the other person as a step towards a mutually acceptable greater good (e. g. a doctor giving a patient a painful injection to cure an ailment). Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to take something from someone in a non-consensual fashion without negotiating overtly with the other person and agreeing to a mutually satisfactory transfer or exchange. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to deceive another person knowingly for your own gain. Ã¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to take deliberate overt action to prevent another person from exercising his will as long as that exercise does not interfere with your own exercise of will, except when the other personÃ¢â¬â¢s will serves to violate the aforementioned principle s. In general, these values declare that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong to interfere in another personÃ¢â¬â¢s life unless they do things to interfere in yoursÃ¢â¬ This corresponds in essence to what has been called the Wiccan Rede which declares that Ã¢â¬Å"[As long as it] harms none, do what thou wiltÃ¢â¬ . While this may seem an elegant moral principle, in practice it runs into trouble because of the differing priorities people place on specific individual values, because of the way differing value systems define what is and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t Ã¢â¬ËharmÃ¢â¬â¢, and perhaps most of all because of the different exceptions implicitly or explicitly defined in a value system.Examples of conflicting value systems This section is devoted to the process of using rational analysis to resolve conflicts between value systems. Individualism vs. collectivism In individualism, the needs and wants of the individual take precedence over the needs and wants of a society or community. The implicit excep tion inherent in individualism is usually Ã¢â¬Å"as long as the actions of the individual do not harm other individuals. Ã¢â¬ Absolutists may claim that even this exception does not hold. In collectivism, the needs and wants of the society or community take precedence over the needs and wants of the individual. Rarely is the exception invoked that this is true Ã¢â¬Å"as long as the actions of the society do not restrict individuals . Ã¢â¬ It could be argued that a rational value system puts value on the needs and wants of the society or community structure, but does not give this more value than the needs and wants of the individuals within it.It is relatively easy to argue the case for this prioritization: under collectivism, a community could decide (however such decisions might be made) that it would work better if there were no people in it to interfere with the smooth running of society. While this might be true, since people tend to Ã¢â¬Å"complicateÃ¢â¬ the smooth running of any social order, it would create a society without any people, something which is clearly against the interest of the people in that societyÃ¢â¬âwould we rationally advocate our o wn extinction if it made the Ã¢â¬Å"systemÃ¢â¬ of society run better?A rational resolution to the conflict between individualism and collectivism might structure these values in this manner: 1. The rights of individuals to act as they wish is unencumbered, unless their actions harm others or interfere with othersÃ¢â¬â¢ free exercise of their individual rights, and as long as their actions do not interfere with functions of society that other individuals depend upon, provided those functions do not themselves interfere with these proscribed individual rights and were agreed to by a majority of the individuals. . A society (or more specifically the system of order that enables the workings of a society) exists for the purpose of benefitting the lives of the individuals who are members of that society. The functions of a society in providing such benefits would be those agreed to by the majority of individuals in the society. 1. A society may require contributions from its members in order for them to benefit from the services provided by the society.The failure of individuals to make such required contributions could be considered a reason to deny those benefits to them, although a society could elect to consider hardship situations in determining how much should be contributed. 1. A society may restrict behavior of individuals who are members of the society only for the purpose of performing its designated functions agreed to by the majority of individuals in the society, only insofar as they violate the aforementioned values. This means that a society may abrogate the rights of any of its members who fails to uphold the aforementioned values. Of necessity, as you can see here, the exceptions associated with values like these can become recursive and often convoluted. The name proposed for the discipline that tries to perform this taskÃ¢â¬âmapping and formalizing value system prioritizations and resolving conflicts between disparate value systems through rational analysisÃ¢â¬âis ethonomics. How to cite Value System in Nepal, Papers